Pomology and Post Harvest Technology

Department of Pomology and Post Harvest Technology



Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Mobile: +919433438982, 9641289279
 Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick

The Department of Pomology and Post Harvest Technology is an academic department of the Faculty of Horticulture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, conducting under graduate and Post Graduate Studies both M. Sc. (Horticulture) in Pomology and Post Harvest Technology and Ph.D. in Pomology and Post Harvest Technology degree programmes.


    1. Teaching (Under Graduate, M.Sc., & Ph.D.)
    2. Collection of germplasm of different fruit crops, Cultivation and orchard management
    3. Post harvest management of horticultural crops
    4. Research on fruit crops, including value addition and product development from horticultural crops
    5. Impart training on various aspects of fruit cultivation and post harvest management
    6. Development of appropriate fruit based cropping systems for different agro-climatic zones.
    7. Development and evaluation of improved varieties and hybrids of fruits with good quality high production potential, biotic and abiotic resistance and suitable for export.
    8. Development and field testing of integrated management of nutrients, diseases and pests of important fruit crops to reduce input costs, environmental pollution and to avoid pesticide-residue problems.
    9. Production of quality planting materials of banana, mango, papaya, guava, litchi, sapota, lemon and minor fruits for planting as well as for distribution to the farmers at a reasonable price through Directorate of Farms.
    10. Protected cultivation of strawberry.
    11. Development of package of practices for production of pineapple, banana and papaya.



    1. Existence of Agri-Export Zones of Fruit crops like Mango, Pineapple, Litchi
    2. Very promising region for mango, pineapple, litchi, citrus, banana, guava, jackfruit, ber, papaya etc
    3. Promising zone of minor fruit crops like Indian Olive (Jalpai), Burmese Grape (Latka), Indian Coffee Plum (Panial) etc.
    4. Great opportunity for expansion of area under fruit crops
    5. Possibility for cultivating varieties with industry and export demand
    6. Prospect for increasing profitability  of fruit cultivation by many fold
    7. Offers good opportunity for the development of fruit processing industry
    8. Huge scope for development of postharvest business



    1. Supply of genuine planting material
    2. Growing traditional varieties
    3. Poor canopy management
    4. Low planting density
    5. Micronutrient Deficiency
    6. Lack of standard package of practices of fruit crops
    7. Lack of awareness regarding quality
    8. Lack of crop diversification
    9. Social constraints
    10. Lack of assured market
    11. Poor post harvest infrastructure


    1. Replacing traditional varieties
    2. Introducing new crops like Passion fruit, Rambutan, Dragon fruit, Thailand Hog Plum, Ber (BAU, Apple), Durian, low chilling Pear & Peach, Strawberry, Persimmon) etc.
    3. Promoting crop diversification
    4. Encouraging high density planting
    5. Efforts to tackle micronutrient deficiency
    6. Rejuvenation of old orchards
    7. Strategies to be developed to manage die-back in mandarin, heart rot in pineapple, fruit borer and other pest complex in mango.
    8. Generate locally available processing technologies.
    9. Means to minimize production cost of various fruits.
    10. Techniques for extraction of fibre from pineapple and banana.
    11. Specific research for utilization of biomass from various crop wastes through composting would be undertaken.
    12. Formulation of new fruit products from pineapple, mango, litchi etc.
    13. Formulation of de-acidified fruit juice beverages from lime, lemon, passion fruit etc.
    14. Techniques for preparation of beverages, leather and other products from different fruit crops.
    15. Techniques for efficient extraction of pectin from different fruit wastes
    16. Intensive training and awareness program
    17. Encouraging private entrepreneurs into nursery business and post harvest business
    18. Developing proper market intelligence
    19. Establishing video call centers
    20. Encouraging establishment of processing industries.


Till date 8 numbers of M.Sc. students and 6 numbers of Ph. D. students have successfully completed their studies.

A Practical Manual, was published from the Department of Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar during 2005



Germplasm blocks of guava (8 cultivars), litchi (7 cultivars), mango (10 cultivars), acid lime (5 cvs. Kagzi, Sai Sarbati, Jai Devi, Pramalini, Vikram), citrus rootstock (8 types) has developed with an aim to produce planting materials for the growers and conducting research trial.


The following orchards were developed for conducting UG/PG practical and Research trials:

  • A mango orchard with 27 varieties
  • Assam Lemon  orchard having more than 300 numbers of plants
  • Hybrid mango block of having 6 hybrids
  • Guava varietal block (8 cultivars)
  • Guava orchard (cv. L 49) having 50 number of plants
  • Litchi varietal block (7 cultivars)
  • Sapota orchard (cv. Cricket Bal ) having 50 plants
  • Water apple orchards (3 types)
  • Minor fruit block (Aonla, Indian Hog plum etc.)





Seven different treatments combination of commercial formulation of growth regulators (cytozyme and biozyme) and micronutrients (tracel2) were evaluated against the control (distilled water ). Though each formulation has beneficial role in improving the fruit physical and quality characters  of fruits of pineapple, the treatment combination cytozyme @ 0.10% + tracel 2 @ 0.40% was the best in this regard.

[email protected] ppm sprayed at 40-50 leaves stage was the best for fruiting characteristics of pineapple in the Cooch Behar zone of West Bengal.

Pineapple cubes packed in glass bottles were found to absorb less moisture as compared to other packaging materials upto 6 months followed by 25µm thick polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) pouch.

The effect of NAA and ethrel on the induction of flowering on pineapple was studied and concluded that ethrel 50 ppm in combination with NAA 10 ppm can be used for good quality fruits as well as higher yield and quality.


Morpho-taxonomical characterization and evaluation of 10 mango cultivars (Gulabkhas, Dashehari, Arka Aruna, Biswanath Chatterjee, Amrapali, Mallika, Chinese Dofala, Jessore Dofala, Alphonso, Bangalora) were studied and concluded that the overall performance of the cultivars Amrapali, Jessore Dofala, Mallika, Gulabkhas and Dashehari was best in terai region of WB inspite of some negligible demerits as these cultivars can be commercially grown.


Cultivar Karpuravalli performed best regarding the yield (30.6 kg/plant) followed by Rasthali or Malbhog (25.4 kg/plant) and other yield attributing characters. Among the quality parameters TSS was found to maximum in Karpuravalli (22.6 oBrix) followed by Rasthali (19.2 oBrix). Total sugar content was also highest in Karpuravalli (21.48%) with minimum acidity (0.42%). Karpuravalli was found to suitable large scale plantation in Terai Zone of West Bengal.

Genetic diversity was studied among 28 land races of banana collected from traditional farming area of North Bengal and North East India using Random Amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The PCR products produced by 10 polymorphic primers revealed 66 bands, 55 of which were polymorphic (72.7%). A dendogram was constructed based on Dice’s coefficient matrix by un-weighted pair group mean analysis using NTSYS-PC, which reveal two major groups of banana: plains (North Bengal) and high hills (Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim). The extent of variability was 86.96% and the average inter and intra-population variability ranged from 45 to 52%.

The performance of Banana cv. Nendran under different doses of NPK was studied. The treatment T6 (N 250, P 80, K 350 g/plant) recorded significantly maximum pseudo-stem height, pseudo-stem girth, no. of leaves, least phyllochron, minimum days for shooting and maturity, whereas, parameters like petiole length, leaf area, number of suckers per plant, fruit size, finger number per branch, hand number per branch, hand weight, bunch weight, pulp% , pulp: peel ratio, dry matter %, TSS, total sugar, reducing sugar and minimum acidity were prominent under T9 (N 250, P 80, K 400 g/plant) over control.

Effect of different micronutrients and growth regulators on the performance and post harvest life of banana (cv. Malbhog, Musa, AAB) was studied. It was found that out of the growth regulators used combination of 100 ppm 2,4-D was the best whereas among micronutrient treatments. 2.0g/plant borax along with 2.0g/plant zinc sulphate as soil application or 0.5% borax along with 0.25% Zinc Sulphate as foliar application was considered best for overall growth, yield and quality of malbhog. Green life, yellow life and shelf life were maximum under 05% KMnO4 solution for 15 minutes with poly ethylene packaging in controlled temperature condition, i.e., 12.5OC. Spraying GA3 and 2,4-D both at 100 ppm along with 0.25% borax and 0.25% zinc sulphate was best for production of fruits with less presence of lump.


Among the six papaya cultivars (Pusa Delicious, Pusa Giant, Pusa Majesty, Pusa Nanha, Pusa Dwarf and Ranchi) tested, Cv. Ranchi was found superior in overall growth characters. However, cv. Pusa Giant produce the highest yield of 79.20 t/ha. But the quality was found superior in cv. Pusa Delicious.

Papaya plants cv. Ranchi supplied with 400g N, 350g P2O5 and 600g K2O recorded highest yield of 94.49 t/ha with good quality fruits.

A trial was conducted to study the efficacy of PSM (Bacillus megatherium +Aspergillus awamori) and VAM (Glomus mosseae + G. fasciculatum) biofertilizers with graded levels of phosphorus (P2O5 at 50,100,150 and 200g) on growth and nutrient uptake of Papaya cv. CO-2. A general dose of nitrogen (300g N/Plant) and potash (400gK/Plant) was applied with FYM during transplantation. Chemical fertilizers were applied in four split doses in the form of urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash. Maximum plant height (192.67 cm), girth (24.00 cm) and total number of leaves (25.17) were observed in VAM + 200g P2O5. VAM were also found effective in increasing height and girth than PSM. Early flowering was noticed due to application of increased phosphorus level and bio-fertilizer inoculation. Highest yield (64.85tons/ha) was resulted due to the inoculation effect of PSM and 200g P2O5 treatment combination. P & K content of leaves increased with increasing phosphorus level and bio-fertilizer application.

Treatment of papaya seed, after removing the mucilaginous coating immediately after collecting from fresh ripe fruits, with GA3 @150 ppm was found best in respect to seed germination (72.2%) followed by sodium thiosulphate @20 ppm (68.1%). But maximum seedling growth was observed under GA3 @ 200 ppm. Borax @0.50% along with ZnSO4 @ 0.25% also markedly improved the seedling growth.

Spraying of different level of boron, Zinc and their combinations improved the growth yield and quality of papaya plants cv. Ranchi. However, among the various treatments papaya plants sprayed with borax @0.5% +ZnSO4@ 0.25 was found best for increasing plant growth, fruit yield(37.20 kg/plant) and qualitative parameters(TSS-6.81OBrix; Ascorbic acid-57.11 mg/100g and β-carotene-3327.14μg/100g).


Maximum survival (89.83%), maximum number of branches (5.08), leaves (34.30), roots (35.66), leaf chlorophyll content (45.41 mg/100g), stem diameter (10.64 mm), root diameter (2.68 mm), average length of roots (15.83 cm), root dry weight (1.48 g), and shoot dry weight (22.73g) were observed in lemon cutting (semi-hard wood) treated with IBA at 2500 ppm, followed by NAA @1250 ppm. However, higher dose of IBA showed an inhibitory effect on most of the characters.

Green mould and blue mould of mandarin orange caused by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively contributed 20-30% of the total post harvest losses in Cooch Behar district during the months of Novemebr-February. The incidence of disease increased from November to January causing nearly 2.6-3.9% of monetary loss in pundibari market.


To develop a self stable product from orange segment using osmotic dehydration, osmotic dehydration was optimised at temperature of 37.50OC, time of 277.50 minutes, agitation of 52.50 rpm, sugar concentration of 44.13% and vacuum drying was optimised at temperature at 56.08OC, duration 1868 minutes, and pressure of 36.22 kPa. The final quality of the osmotically dehydrated orange segments was found to have a moisture content of 55.11+3.59%, water activity of 0.767±0.036, total sugar of 34.83±2.76%, vitamin C content of 421.244±3.799 mg/100g, colour (L*, a*, b*) 53.21±1.55, 11.49±0.66, 21.26±4.12, texture (firmness, stickiness) 0.163±0.03N, 0.0016±0.00009N, antioxidant of 71.34±1.39%.


The agro- climatic condition of Cooch Behar dist. of West Bengal is quite suited for commercial cultivation of Litchi. Among the existed Litchi plants 6.25%were drooping and rest were spreading or upright in nature. Flowering started from 3rd week of February and continued upto 4th week of March. About 44% plants showed compact inflorescences and other showed medium and loose inflorescences. Maximum trees (62.5%) showed mild biennial bearing habit which might be due to the poor management practices and inferior planting materials and it decreased gradually with the advancement of the age. Extent of fruit drop were high in 27.78% trees and it was low in 20.83%trees rest plants showed medium extent of fruit drop.


Nine promising cultivars of strawberry were grown during September, 2000 to April 2001 at the University Farm of Pundibari to estimate leaf area under non-destructive way, as leaf area is one of the dependable bases to assess the production potential of a crop variety. Co-relation co-efficient between length and breadth, measurement of side and top leaflets with leaf area obtained leaf area meter for each cultivar and over the cultivars for the estimation of area of trifoliate leaves or its leaflets (side and top) using measurements of lengths and breadths of top and side leaflets. The estimated values of leaf area calculated with the help of regression equation derived from the length and breadth measurements of side and top leaflets of a cultivar varied significantly (<0.1%) from actual leaf area obtained under leaf area meter for that cultivar, indicating a high degree of precision of the non destructive way of leaf area estimation. The common equation irrespective of cultivars for the estimation of area of trifoliate leaf may be Y=165.91X-2716.35 or Y=161.03X1-2121.8, where Y=estimated area of trifoliate leaf, X=breadth of top leaflet and X1=breadth of side leaflets.

Effect of different nutrient and mulching materials on yield, quality as shelf life of strawberry cv. Chandler was studied and concluded that using straw mulch has a good prospect of getting higher yield and profits.


Assessment of quality characteristics upon enzymes assisted juice extraction from plum was made. The results of the study suggested that pectinase enzymes at a concentration of 10 units/ml were found to increase yield significantly over control. The treatment with celluase @ 6 units/ml was found to produce juice with best colour properties. Considering all parameter studies it was concluded that fruit mash with Hemicellulase @ 9 units/ml was found best.


For seedling production, treatment of jackfruit seeds with GA3 @ 100ppm was considered best as seedlings possess higher plant height, more number of leaves per plant and moderately higher survivability.


The physico-chemical characteristics of three cultivars of sapota (Cricket Ball, Kalipatti, and Badami) were assessed during the 1999-2000. The average fruit weight varied from 84.33 g in Cricket Ball to 65.66g in Kalipatti and it was intermediate (78.00 g) in Badami. Fruits of Cricket Ball content maximum TSS (20.8%) followed by Badami (18.53%) and it was minimum (18.20%) in Kalipatti. The titrable acidity of all the varieties was almost same and the lowest value of 0.17% was recorded in Cricket Ball. The ascorbic acid content was very low in all the varieties ranging from 3.63 mg/100 g pulp in Kalipatti to 2.77 mg/100g of pulp in Cricket Ball.


Shelf life of yellow and purple passion fruit squash was studied. Determination of shelf life was based on organoleptic score and mould count. After storing for six month best composition for passion fruit squash was found as follows:

Passion fruit squash Juice (ml) Sugar (mg) Water (ml) Citric acid (mg) Preservative (mg)






0.6 (Potassium metabisulphite)






0.75 (Sodium benzoate)


Latka is an ever green, short to medium height plant belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It bears flowers during March-April and fruits are available during rainy season, 3-4 months after flowering. Matured laka fruits are yellow or yellowish brown in colour. Sub-acid latka is consumed fresh.

Among the physical parameters fruit showed total weight and peel weight of 9.0 g and 3.75 g, respectively. Among the bio-chemical parameters, fruit resembles 9.86Obrix TSS, 4.42 % total sugar, 2.93 % reducing sugar and 2.1 % acidity.

An attempt has been made to evaluate the physical and biochemical properties of different Burmese grape genotypes in northern parts of West Bengal. The present investigation was carried out with twelve germplasms. The data represented from the experiment revealed that the germplasms varied among themselves regarding different physical and biochemical attributes of fruits in fully ripe condition. The maturity for fruit harvesting is least in Accession No. 9 (78.33 days) followed by Accession No. 8 (80.66 days) and it is maximum (90.33 days) for the Accession No. 7. For most of the desirable attributes, the Accession No. 11 showed better response ike maximum length (3.383 cm), diameter (3.513 cm), weight (19.93 gm), juice content (74.10 ml/10 fruit) and lowest acidity (1.996%).

Developmental pattern of Burmese grape was carried out in respect to different physical and biochemical aspects of fruits on the plants of farmers house hold nearer to the Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal. All the plants aged between ten to fifteen years and were well grown, free from pests and diseases. After fruit set, the required fruit bunches were tagged on all sides to obtain uniform result. The fruits were harvested and subjected for studies on physico-chemical changes from 30th days after fruit set and continued up to 86th days after fruit set at weekly interval. Fruit size (length and diameter), juice content increased while peel thickness and seed weight decreased with advancement of maturity. Notable increase in TSS, sugar content and sugar: acid ratio were observed with decrease in acidity. At the time of harvest the fruits have at­tained TSS around 12.13OBrix, acidity less than 2.16%, 4.18% total sugar and pericarp colour should be yellowish green. Considering the fruit size, fruit weight and all the fruit quality characteristics it is suggested that the Burmese grape can be harvested in between 80-85 days after fruit set for best desert quality.

Tree growth habit and crown shape of Burmese grape was semi erect and irregular, respectively. The flower bud differentiation of male and female accessions started from first week of February to mid week of February. During the growth and development of the fruits the physical parameters like fruit length, breadth, weight, peel weight, seed weight and pulp percentage increased significantly after every seven days till maturity.


Panial is a short to medium tree having spines in the young branches belongs to the family Flacourtiaceae. Flowers appear during April-May and fruits are harvested in August-September. Ripe fruits are brown or brownish red in colour. It is consumed as fresh fruits but fruits have good potential for the preparation of Jam. A typical local practice is that after harvesting, the matured fruits are gently pressed in between the palms of both hand before consumption as fresh fruits.


Jalpai belongs to the family Elaeocarpaceae, is a medium to tall tree which bears flowers during April-May and fruits mature for harvest in August to October, Fruits are greenish in colour, single seeded and the shape resembles to olive fruit. Matured fruits are mainly used for the preparation of pickles and chutney. Considering their importance, it is urgently necessary to take initiatives for standardizing their package of practices as well as for exploring their product diversification.


Physico-chemical characteristics and utilization aspects of 26 different minor wild fruits of Sikkim were studied. These fruits are available round the year and have a great potential either for medicinal purposes or for producing different value added products or can be exploited for various non-fruit utilities like charcoal purpose, fuel wood etc. Such documentation will benefit the community and also preserves their cultural pride.


The performance of elephant foot yam (Amorphopahllus paeoniifolius) sown in two different depth (10,15 cm) grown as intercrop with mango spaced at 6×6 m and 8×8 m revealed that under terai zone of West Bengal elephant foot yam  yielded highest when sown at a depth of 10 cm and inter cropped with mango spaced at 8×8m.


Out of sixteen different treatments using different concentrations and combination of NAA and MH on post harvest life of potato dipping in NAA 2000 ppm for 30 minutes was considered best in reducing physiological loss in weight and percentage of rotting and sprouting of tubers for a period of 90 days.


Six popular local ginger genotypes of six districts of North Bengal was collected to estimate the quality parameters of their rhizome. It was found that selection- 2 is highest in yield, selection- 5 is suitable for dried and bleached ginger as it possesses highest dry matter content and lowest crude fiber content, with higher yield. Selection – 4 is most suitable for its oleoresin content.


The investigation on the suitability of some post harvest treatment combinations for better shelf life of green chilli revealed that treatment with GA3@150 ppm and packaging with LDPE of 100 gauge having 5% perforation and kept at 6-8OC temperature with 75% R.H. was most effective and suitable for increasing the shelf life of chilli having less effect in quality in respect to less physiological loss in weight, highest green colour retention and highest ascorbic acid content. When chemicals are not available the harvested fresh fruits can be stored after wrapping with PVC or LDPE and should be kept within cold condition (6-8OC temperature with 75%R.H.) for better shelf life.

Departmental Courses and Syllabus


a) Under graduate courses

Sl No. Course No. Name of the course Credit
PPT 101 Fundamentals of Horticulture 2+1
PPT 102 Plant Propagation & Nursery Management 1+1
PPT 103# Production Technology of Fruit Crops 2+1
PPT 151 Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits 2+1
PPT 152 Fundamentals of Food Technology 1+1
PPT 201 Temperate Fruits 1+1
PPT 251 Orchard Management 1+1
PPT 252 Breeding of Fruits & Plantation Crops 2+1
PPT 301 Post Harvest Management of Horticultural Crops 2+1
PPT 302# Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Fruits & VegetablesVegVegeteVeVegetables 1+1

b) M.Sc.  courses

Sl Course Title of the Course Credit
1 PPT 501* Tropical & Subtropical Fruit Production-  I 2+1
2 PPT 502* Tropical & Subtropical Fruit Production-  II 2+1
3 PPT 503* Temperate Fruit Production Technology 2+1
4 PPT 504* Breeding of Fruit Crops 2+1
5 PPT 505* Post Harvest Physiology & Handling of Horticultural Crops 2+1
6 PPT 506* Principal of Preservation of Horticultural Crops 2+1
7 PPT 507* Propagation, Nursery Management & Biotechnology of Fruit Crops 2+1
8 PPT 508 Storage Systems and Operations 2+0
9 PPT 509 Organic Fruit Production and Gap For Fruit Crops 2+0
10 PPT 510 Orchard Management Including Canopy Management in    Fruit Crops 1+0
11 PPT 511 Protected Cultivation and Climate Management for Fruit Crops 2+1
12 PPT 512 Growth and Development of Horticultural Crops 2+1
13 PPT 513 Biodiversity and Conservation of Fruit Crops 1+0
14 PPT 591 Master’s Seminar 1+0
15 PPT 599 Master’s Research 20

c) Ph.D. courses

Sl Course Course Title Credit
1 PPT601** Advances in Breeding of Fruit Crops 2+1
2 PPT 602** Advances in Production of Fruit Crops- I 2+1
3 PPT 603** Advances in Production of Fruit Crops- Ii 2+1
4 PPT 604 Advances   in   Growth   Regulation   of   Fruit Crops 2+1
5 PPT 605 Genomics and Bioinformatics in Horticulture 2+1
6 PPT 606 Biotic and Abiotic Stress Management in Horticultural Crops 2+1
7 PPT 607** Commercial Fruit Nursery 1+1
8 PPT 608** Advances in Post Harvest Physiology 2+0
9 PPT 609 Advances in Food Preservation 2+0
10 PPT 691 Doctoral Seminar I 1+0
11 PPT 692 Doctoral Seminar II 1+0
12 PPT 699 Doctoral Research 45

*Compulsory for Master’s programme; ** Compulsory for Doctoral programme, # for B.Sc. (Ag.)



1. PPT 101                                Fundamentals of Horticulture                                  3(2+1)

Theory: Economic importance and classification of horticultural crops and their culture and nutritive value, area and production, exports and imports, fruit and vegetable zones of India and of different states, nursery management practices, soil and climate, vegetable gardens, nutrition and kitchen garden and other types of gardens – principles, planning and layout, management of orchards, planting systems and planting densities. Production and practices for fruit, vegetable and floriculture crops, nursery techniques and their management.  Principles and methods of pruning and training of fruit crops, types and use of growth regulators in  horticulture, water management, weed management, fertility management in horticultural crops, cropping systems, intercropping, multi-tier cropping, mulching, bearing habits, factors influencing the fruitfulness and unfruitfulness. Rejuvenation of old orchards, top working, frame working, principles of organic farming.

Practical: Features of orchard, planning and layout of orchard, tools and implements,  layout of nutrition garden, preparation of nursery beds for sowing of  vegetable seeds,  digging of  pits for fruit plants, planting systems, training and pruning of orchard trees,  preparation of fertilizer mixtures and field application, preparation and application of growth regulators, layout of different irrigation systems, identification and management of nutritional disorder in fruits and vegetables, assessment of bearing habits, maturity standards, harvesting, grading, packaging and storage.


2. PPT 102       Plant Propagation and Nursery Management        2(1+1)

Theory: Propagation: Need and potentialities for plant multiplication, sexual and asexual methods of propagation, advantages and disadvantages. Seed dormancy (scarification & stratification) internal and external factors, nursery techniques, apomixes – mono-embrony, polyembrony, chimera & bud sport. Propagation Structures: Mist chamber, humidifiers, greenhouses, glasshouses, cold frames, hot beds, poly-houses, nursery (tools and implements), use of growth regulators in seed and vegetative propagation, methods and techniques of cutting, layering, grafting and budding physiological & bio chemical basis of rooting, factors influencing rooting of cuttings and layering, graft incompatibility.  Anatomical studies of bud union, selection and maintenance of mother trees, collection of scion wood stick, scion-stock relationship, and their influences, bud wood certification, techniques of propagation through specialized organs, corm, runners, suckers. Micrografting, hardening of plants in nurseries.  Nursery registration act.  Insect/pest/disease control in nursery.

Practical: Media for propagation of plants in nursery beds, pot and mist chamber. Preparation of nursery beds and sowing of seeds. Raising of rootstock. Seed treatments for breaking dormancy and inducing vigorous seedling growth. Preparation of plant material for potting. Hardening plants in the nursery.  Practicing different types of cuttings, layering, graftings and buddings including opacity and grafting, etc. Use of mist chamber in propagation and hardening of plants.  Preparation of plant growth regulators for seed germination and vegetative propagation. Visit to a tissue culture laboratory. Digging, labeling and packing of fruit plants. Maintenance of nursery records. Use of different types of nursery tools and implements for general nursery and virus tested plant material in the nursery.  Cost of establishment of a mist chamber, greenhouse, glasshouse, polyhouse and their maintenance. Top grafting, bridge grafting and nursery management. Nutrient and plant protection applications during nursery.


3. PPT 103         Production Technology of Fruit Crops       3(2+1)

 Definition and importance of horticulture. Divisions of horticulture. Climatic zones of horticulture crops.  Area and production of different fruit crops. Selection of site, fencing, and wind break, planting systems, high density planting, planning and establishment. Propagation methods and use of rootstocks. Methods of training and pruning. Use of growth regulators in fruit production. Package of practices for the cultivation of major fruits – mango, banana, citrus, grape, guava, sapota, apple, litchi. Papaya, Minor fruits – pineapple, annonaceous fruits, pomegranate, ber, fig, phalsa, jack, pear, plum, peaches and cherry.

Practical: Study of horticultural tools and implements and their uses; Containers, potting mixture, potting, depotting and repotting; Plant propagation,  seed propagation, scarification, and stratification; Propagation by cuttings (soft wood, hard wood and semi-hardwood) layering (simple layering, Air layering, stooping in guava);  Layout and planting systems (Traditional system and high density planting methods);   Methods of pruning and training;  Training of ber, grape and pomegranate;  Pruning of ber, grape, phalsa, fig, apple, pear, peach;  Description and identification of varieties of mango, guava, grape, papaya, apple and sapota; Description and identification of varieties of banana, citrus, (lime lemon, sweet orange, mandarin, grape fruit) pomegranate, ber, pear and cherries;  Irrigation methods in fruit crops including drip – Micro irrigation methods of establishment of orchard; Methods of Fertiliser application methods in fruit crops including fertigation technology; Visit to local commercial orchards; Preparation of growth regulators,  powder, solution and lanolin paste for propagation; Application of growth regulators for improving fruit set, fruit size, quality, delaying  ripening and hastening ripening.


4. PPT 151                  Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits                                          3(2+1)

Theory: Horticultural classification of fruits including genome classification.  Horticultural zones of India, detailed study of area, production and export potential, varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation techniques, planting density and systems, after care, training and pruning.  Management of water, nutrient and weeds, special horticultural techniques including plant growth regulators, their solution preparation and use in commercial orchards. Physiological disorders. Post-harvest technology, harvest indices, harvesting methods, grading, packaging and storage of the following crops. Mango, banana, bael, banana, grapes, citrus, papaya, sapota, guava, pineapple, jackfruit, avocado, mangosteen, litchi, carambola, durian and passion fruit. Bearing in mango and citrus, causes and control measures of special production problems, alternate and irregular bearing overcome, control measures.  Seediness and kokkan disease in banana, citrus decline and casual factors and their management. Bud forecasting in grapes, sex expression and seed production in papaya, latex extraction and crude papain production, economic of production. Rainfed horticulture, importance and scope of arid and semi-arid zones of India. Characters and special adaptation of crops: ber, aonla, annona, jamun, wood apple, bael, pomegranate, carissa, date palm, phalsa, fig, west Indian cherry and tamarind.

Practical: Description and identification of varieties based on flower and fruit morphology in above crops.  Training and pruning of grapes, mango, guava and citrus. Selection of site and planting system, pre-treatment of banana suckers, desuckering in banana, sex forms in papaya.  Use of plastics in fruit production. Visit to commercial orchards and diagnosis of maladies.  Manure and fertilizer application including bio-fertilizer in fruit crops, preparation and application of growth regulators in banana, grapes and mango. Seed production in papaya, latex extraction and preparation of crude papain.  Ripening of fruits, grading and packaging, production economics for tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Mapping of arid and semi-arid zones of India. Botanical description and identification of ber, fig, jamun, pomegranate, carissa, phalsa, wood apple, West Indian cherry, tamarind, aonla, bael and annona.


5PPT 152                      Fundamentals of Food Technology            2 (1+1)

Theory: Food and its function, physico-chemical properties of foods, food preparation techniques, nutrition, relation of nutrition of good health.  Characteristics of well and malnourished population.  Energy, definition, determination of energy requirements, food energy, total energy needs of the body.  Carbohydrates: classification, properties, functions, source, requirements, digestion, absorption and utilization. Protein, classification, properties, functions, sources, requirements, digestion, absorption, essential and non-essential amino acids, quality of proteins, PER/NPR/NPU, supplementary value of proteins and deficiency.  Lapids – classification, properties, functions, sources, requirements, digestion, absorption and utilization, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, deficiency, rancidity, refining of fats.  Mineral nutrition: macro and micro-minerals (Ca, Fe and P), function, utilization, requirements, sources, effects of deficiency. Vitamins: functions, sources, effects of deficiency, requirements of water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. Balanced diet: recommended dietary allowances for various age groups, assessment of nutritional status of the population.

Practical: Methods of measuring food ingredients, effect of cooking on volume and weight, determination of percentage of edible portion. Browning reactions of fruits and vegetables. Microscopic examination of starches, estimation of energy, value proteins and fats of foods.  Planning diet for various age groups.


6. PPT 201            Temperate Fruits             2(1+1)

Theory: Classification of temperate fruits, detailed study of areas, production, varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, planting density, cropping systems, after care training and pruning, self incompatibility and pollinisers, use of growth regulators, nutrient and weed management, harvesting, post-harvest handling and storage of apple, pear, peach, apricot, cherry, persimmon, strawberry, kiwi, Queens land nut (Mecademia nut), almond, walnut, pecan nut, hazel nut and chest nut.  Re- plant problem, rejuvenation and special production problems like pre-mature leaf fall, physiological disorders, important insect – pests and diseases and their control measures.

Practical: Nursery management practices, description and identification of varieties of above crops, manuring and fertilization, planting systems, preparation and use of growth regulators, training and pruning in apple, pear, plum, peach and nut crops.  Visit to private orchards to diagnose maladies.  Working out economics for apple, pear, plum and peach.


7.  PPT 251                      Orchard Management                      2(1+1)

Theory: Orchard management, importance, objectives, merits and demerits, clean cultivation, sod culture, Sod mulch, herbicides and inorganic and organic mulches.  Tropical, sub-tropical and temperate horticultural systems, competitive and complimentary effect of root and shoot systems. Biological efficiency of cropping systems in horticulture, systems of irrigation. Soil management in relation to nutrient and water uptake and their effect on soil environment, moisture, organisms and soil properties. Integrated nutrient and pest management. Utilization of resources constraints in existing systems. Crop model and crop regulation in relation to cropping systems.

Practical: Layout of different systems of orchard soil management, clean, inter, cover and mixed cropping, fillers.  Use of mulch materials, organic and inorganic, moisture conservation, weed control. Layout of various irrigation systems.


8. PPT 252                   Breeding of Fruit and Plantation Crops                                          3 (2+1)

Theory: Fruit breeding – History, importance in fruit production, distribution, domestication and adaptation of commercially important fruits, variability for economic traits, breeding strategies, clonal selection, bud mutations, mutagenesis and its  application in crop improvement – policy manipulations – in vitro breeding tools (important fruit and plantation crops).

Practical: Exercises on floral biology, pollen viability; emasculation and pollination procedures; hybrid seed germination; raising and evaluation of segregating populations; use of mutagens to induce mutations and polyploidy.


9.  PPT 301            Post Harvest Management of Horticultural Crops                   3 (2+1)

Theory: Importance of post-harvest technology in horticultural crops. Maturity indices, harvesting, handling, grading of fruits, vegetables, cut flowers, plantation crops, medicinal and aromatic plants. Pre-harvest factors affecting quality, factors responsible for deterioration of horticultural produce, physiological and bio-chemical changes, hardening and delaying ripening process. Post-harvest treatments of horticultural crops. Quality parameters and specification. Structure of fruits, vegetables and cut flowers related to physiological changes after harvest.  Methods of storage for local market and export. Pre-harvest treatment and pre-cooling, pre-storage treatments. Different systems of storage, packaging methods and types of packages, recent advances in packaging. Types of containers and cushioning materials, vacuum packaging, cold storage, poly shrink packaging, grape guard packing treatments.  Modes of transport.

Practical: Practice in judging the maturity of various horticultural produce, determination of physiological loss in weight and quality.  Grading of horticultural produce, post-harvest treatment of horticultural crops, physical and chemical methods.  Packaging studies in fruits, vegetables, plantation crops and cut flowers by using different packaging materials, methods of storage, post-harvest disorders in horticultural produce.  Identification of storage pests and diseased in spices.  Visit to markets, packaging houses and cold storage units.


10. PPT 302    Post Harvest Management and Value Addition of Fruits and Vegetables     2 (1+1)

Importance of post harvest technology in horticultural crops. Maturity indices, harvesting and post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. Maturity and ripening process. Factors affecting ripening of fruits, and vegetables.  Pre harvest factors affecting quality on post harvest shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Factors responsible for detioration of harvested fruits and vegetables. Chemicals used for hastening and delaying ripening of fruits and vegetables. Methods of storage – precooling, prestorage treatments, low temperature storage, controlled atmospheric storage, hypobaric storage, irradiation and low cost storage structures. Various methods of packing, packaging materials and transport. Packing technology for export. Fabrication of types of containers, cushioning material, vacuum packing, poly shrink packing, specific packing for export of mango, banana, grapes kinnow, sweet orange, and mandarin etc. Importance and scope of fruit and vegetable preservation in India. Principles of preservation by heat, low temperature, chemicals and fermentation. Unit layout – selection of site and  precautions for hygienic conditions of the unit. Preservation through canning, bottling, freezing, dehydration, drying, ultraviolet and ionizing radiations. Preparation of jams, jellies, marmalades, candies, crystallized and glazed fruits, preserves, chutneys, pickles, ketchup, sauce, puree, syrups, juices, squashes and cordials Spoilage of canned products, biochemical, enzymatic and microbial spoilage. Preservatives, Colours permitted and prohibited in India.

Practical: Practice in judging the maturity of various fruits and vegetables. Conservation of zero energy cool chambers for on farm storage. 3& 4. Determination of physiological loss in weight (PLW), total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars, acidity and ascorbic and content in fruits and vegetables. Packing methods and types of packing and importance of ventilation. Pre cooling packing methods  for export or international trade. Methods of prolonging storage life. Effect of ethylene on ripening of banana, sapota, mango, sapota. Identification of equipment and machinery used is preservation of fruits and vegetables. Preservation by drying and dehydration. Preparation of jam, jelly and marmalades. Preparation of squash, cordials and syrups. Preparation of chutneys, pickles sauces and ketchup. Visit to local processing units. Visit to local market yards and cold storage units. Visit to local market and packing industries.




1.      PPT 501 : Tropical & Subtropical Fruit Production-  I                        3 (2+1)


Commercial varieties  of regional,  national and international  importance, ecophysiological  requirements,  recent  trends  in  propagation,  rootstock influence,  planting  systems,  cropping  systems,  nutrient management, water management, role of bio-regulators, training and pruning, flowering,  pollination,   fruit  set  and  development, physiological disorders- causes   and  remedies, maturity indices,   harvesting, grading,  packing,  storage  and ripening; export potential, Agri. Export Zones(AEZ) of following crops:Mango, Banana, Citrus, Papaya, Guava, Pineapple, Litchi and Grape


Nutrition, weed management and propagation techniques of above mentioned crops. Identification of important  cultivars,  observations   on growth  and development, practices in growth regulation, malady diagnosis, analyses of quality   attributes,   visit   to   tropical   and   sub-tropical orchards,   Project preparation for establishing commercial orchards.


2.      PPT 502 : Tropical & Subtropical Fruit Production-  II                       2+1


Commercial varieties  of regional,  national and international  importance, ecophysiological  requirements,  recent  trends  in  propagation,  rootstock influence,  planting  systems,  cropping  systems,  nutrient management, water management, role of bio-regulators, training and pruning, flowering,  pollination,   fruit  set  and  development, physiological disorders- causes    and  remedies,    maturity indices,   harvesting, grading,  packing,  storage  and ripening; export potential, Agri. Export Zones(AEZ) of following crops: Sapota, Jackfruit, rambutan, Avocado, aonla, Pomegranate, Ber, Loquat, Persimmon, mangosteen,  Carambola, bael,  fig, jamun,


Nutrition, weed management and propagation techniques of above mentioned crops. Identification  of important cultivars,  observations on growth   and development, practices in growth regulation, malady diagnosis, analyses of quality   attributes,   visit   to tropical, subtropical,  orchards,   Project   preparation   for   establishing   commercial orchards.


3.      PPT 503:           Temperate Fruit Production Technology                             3 (2+1)


Commercial varieties  of regional,  national and international  importance, ecophysiological  requirements,  recent  trends  in  propagation, rootstock influence,  planting  systems,  cropping  systems,  nutrient management, water management, role of bio-regulators, training and pruning, flowering,  pollination,   fruit  set  and  development, physiological disorders- causes       and  remedies, maturity indices,   harvesting, grading,  packing,  storage  and ripening; export potential, of following crops: Apple, pear, Plums, peach, apricot,  kiwifruit, strawberry, cherries,  walnut, almond, pistachio, pecan, hazelnut


Identification of important cultivars,     observations   on growth and development, practices in growth regulation, malady diagnosis, analyses of quality   attributes,   visit   to  temperate   orchards,   Project   preparation   for   establishing   commercial orchards.


4.      PPT 504:                    Breeding of Fruit Crops                                                    3(2+1)


Origin  and   distribution, taxonomical  status- species and cultivars, cytogenetics,   genetic   resources,   blossom   biology,   breeding   systems, breeding   objectives, ideotypes, approaches for crop improvement- introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploid breeding, rootstock breeding, improvement of quality traits, resistance breeding for biotic and  abiotic stresses, biotechnological  interventions, achievements and future thrust in the following selected fruit crops: Mango, banana, pineapple, Citrus, grapes, guava, sapota, papaya, custard apple, litchi,   apple, pear, and strawberry


Characterization   of   germplasm,   blossom   biology,   determination of sex ratio, study of floral and leaf characteristics, study   of   anthesis,  practices  in  hybridization, evaluation  of  biometrical  traits  and  quality  traits, visit to  research stations working on tropical,  subtropical  and temperate fruit improvement


5.      PPT 505: Post Harvest Physiology & Handling of Horticultural Crops          3(2+1)


Pre harvest factors affecting post harvest quality and physiology of fruits and vegetables. Structure and composition of fruits and vegetables, physiological implications and structure on water movement, its loss and uptake and exchange of gasses. Maturity & Harvesting Indices, Harvesting injuries, Methods of harvesting. Postharvest changes, Ripening & Senescence, Respiration & Respiratory climacteric Ethylene biosynthesis and its action on ripening. Manipulation and regulation of postharvest physiology, ripening, senescence to extend storage life of fruits and vegetables, Bulk handling methods, Pack house operations – cleaning, trimming, grading, sorting, curing, de-greening, pre-cooling, washing and waxing. Storage: Goals, storage considerations, methods of storage- low cost storage, refrigerated storage, CA and MA storage, Storage disorders.


Judging harvest maturity, Quality evaluation of different harvested fruits and vegetables – determination of firmness, TSS, moisture, acidity, sugars, ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenol, tannin, starch, proteins,  Grading and sizing, Methods of waxing and its evaluation. Visit to cold storage and CA storage units.


6.      PPT 506: Principal of Preservation of Horticultural Crops      3(2+1)


History of food preservation, general principles of preservation; asepsis. Thermal processing, heat resistance of micro-organism & enzymes in food, heat penetration in cans, determination of process time. Low temperature preservation:  freezing, methods of freezing, changes during freezing, changes during storage of freezing products. Theory of gel formation, pectin chemistry, sources, problems in jelly making. Drying & Dehydration: blanching, sun drying, mechanical drying, and different types of driers. Food fermentation – alcoholic, acetic, and lactic fermentation, pickling. Preservatives – Class-I & II preservatives, their mode of action, use of antibiotics in food preservation, Preservation by ionizing radiation – principles, sources and types of radiations, their mode of action. Food colour, Food flavour, Food additives.


Studies of food additives, colour, flavour,  preservatives and antioxidants. Extraction and quantification of pectin. Determination of water activity, Determination of syrup, and brine strength. Drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables. Demonstartion of canning and freezing operation. List & cost of equipments, utensils and other additives required for small scale industry. visit  to  fruit  and  vegetable processing units.

7.      PPT 507:  Propagation, Nursery Management & Biotechnology of Fruit Crops      3(2+1)


Introduction, sexual propagation, apomixis, polyembryony, chimeras. Factors influencing seed germination, dormancy. Asexual propagation – different types of cutting. Physiological, anatomical and biochemical aspects of root induction in cuttings. Layering . Budding and grafting – selection of elite mother plants. Establishment of bud wood bank, stock, scion and inter stock relationship, Incompatibility. Rejuvenation through top working, Progeny orchard and scion bank. Nursery  –  types,  structures,  components,  planning  and  layout.  Nursery management practices for healthy propagule production. Micro-propagation  – principles  and concepts, commercial exploitation  in fruit crops. Techniques –in   vitro   clonal   propagation,   organogenesis, embryogenesis, micrografting,  meristem culture. Hardening, packing and transport of micro-propagules. Harnessing   bio-technology   in   fruit crops,   influence   of   plant materials, physical, chemical factors and growth regulators on growth and development of plant cell, tissue and organ culture. Callus   culture   –  types,  cell   division,   differentiation,   morphogenesis, organogenesis, embryogenesis. Physiology of hardening  – hardening and field  transfer,  organ culture – meristem,  embryo,  anther,  ovule  culture,   embryo  rescue,  somaclonal variation, protoplast culture and fusion. omatic  hybrids  and  cybrids,  wide hybridization,  in  vitro  pollination  and  fertilization, cryopreservation,  rapid   clonal   propagation, genetic engineering in fruit crops, use of molecular markers.


Different propagation methods for fruit crops. Study of construction of propagation structures, study of media and PGR. Visit to nurseries. Hardening – case studies, micropropagation, explant  preparation,  media preparation,. An  exposure  visit to  low  cost,  commercial  and  homestead  tissue  culture laboratories,   Media   preparation,   Project preparation for establishment of commercial tissue culture laboratory.


8.      PPT 508 :       Storage systems and operations                                     3(2+1)


Introduction. Principles of storage, Objectives of storage, storage considerations- temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric composition. Concept of cool chain. Storage systems- low cost storage techniques; zero energy cool chamber, high cost storage techniques: ambient temperature storage. Refrigerated storage: design and operation, hypobaric storage, MAP and CAP, storage with irradiation, concept of multipurpose cold storage. Chilling injuries and other physiological disorder in storage.

Practical: equipments and design of different storage system, Effectivness of ZECC in extending storage life, post harvest loss assessment. Demonstration of chilling injury and physiological disorder in storage. Calculation related to mass and energy balance. Visit to cold storage.


9.      PPT 509 : Organic Fruit Production And Gap For Fruit Crops                      2(1+1)


Organic  horticulture  –  definition,  principles, methods, merits and demerits. Organic  farming  systems,  components  of  organic  horticultural  systems, different   organic   inputs,   their   role   in   organic   horticulture,   role   of biofertilizers, biodynamics and the recent developments. sustainable  soil  fertility management, weed management  practices  in  organic  farming,  biological/natural  control  of pests and diseases, organic horticulture in quality improvement.Genesis of GAP – definition/description, components listed by FAO, frame work. Management  of site history  and soil,  crop  and  fodder  production,  IPM, INM, IWM, irrigation water, crop production and protection. Identification of ways of  improving the productivity profitability, and resource efficiency. harvest and post-harvest handling. Animal   production,   product   certification,   animal   waste   management, animal health and welfare, harvest. On farm processing, storage, energy and waste management, human health, welfare, safety, wild life benefits. Institutions  involved  in GAP  certification.  Indian agencies, EUREPGAP (European Retail Producers Group- Good Agricultural Practices), EUREP etc.


Bio-composting, biofertilizers  and  their  application, methods   of   preparation   of   compost, vermicompost,  application of neem   products, visit to fields  cultivated  under organic practices


10.  PPT 510 : Orchard Management Including Canopy Management in Fruit Crops       2(1+1)


Principles, planning for orchard establishment, Selection of site for orchard, Layout and system of planting in orchard. High density orcharding, Cropping systems followed in orchard: Intercropping, multitier cropping, mulching, sod culture, cover cropping, green manuring. Weed management.Canopy management – importance and advantages; factors affecting canopy development. Canopy  types  and  structures  with  special  emphasis  on  geometry  of planting,  canopy  manipulation  for  optimum  utilization  of  light.  Light interception and distribution in different types of tree canopies. Spacing  and  utilization  of  land  area  –  Canopy  classification;  Canopy management through rootstock and scion. Canopy management through plant growth inhibitors, training and pruning and management practices. Canopy  development and  management in  relation  to  growth,  flowering, fruiting and fruit quality in tropical, subtropical and temperate fruit crops.


Lay out of orchard, study of different system of planting. green   manuring,  cover cropping, intercropping , use of fillers,  soil  solarization,  Study of different types of canopies, training of plants, canopy development through pruning, use of plant growth inhibitors, geometry of planting; study on effect of different canopy types on production and quality of fruits.


11.  PPT 511:  Protected Cultivation and Climate Management for Fruit Crops     3(2+1)


Greenhouse   –  World   scenario,   Indian   situation:   present   and   future, Different  agro-climatic  zones  in  India,  Environmental  factors  and  their effects on plant growth. Basics of greenhouse design, different types of structures  – glasshouse, shade net, poly tunnels – Design and development of low cost greenhouse structures. Interaction of light, temperature, humidity, CO2, water on crop regulation. Greenhouse heating, cooling, ventilation and shading. Types of ventilation- Forced cooling techniques – Glazing materials – Micro irrigation and Fertigation. Automated  greenhouses, microcontrollers, waste water   recycling, Management of pest and diseases – IPM.Introduction  to  climate  change.  Factors  directly  connected  to  climate change, average temperature, change in rainfall amount and patterns, rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2, pollution levels such as tropospheric ozone,  change in climatic variability and extreme events like receding of glaciers in Himalayas. Sensors for climate registration and crop monitoring, phytomonitoring and biosensors,  plants  response  to  the  climate  changes,  premature  bloom, marginally overwintering or inadequate winter chilling hours, insect pests, longer  growing  seasons  and  shifts  in  plant  hardiness for  perennial  fruit crops. Impact  of  climate  changes  on  invasive  insect,  disease,  weed,  pests, horticulture yield, quality and sustainability, climate management in field production – mulching – use of plastic- windbreak- spectral changes- frost protection.  Climate management  in  greenhouse-  heating  –  vents  –  CO2 injection – screens – artificial light.


Designs  of  greenhouse,  low  cost  poly  tunnels,  nethouse-  Regulation  of light,  temperature,  humidity  in  greenhouses,  media,  greenhouse  cooling systems,   ventilation  systems,  fertigation  systems,  special  management practices, project preparation for greenhouses, visit to greenhouses.


12.  PPT 512: Growth and Development of Horticultural Crops    3(2+1)


Growth and development- definition, parameters of growth and development, growth dynamics, morphogenesis. Annual, semi-perennial and perennial horticultural crops, environmental impact on growth and development, effect of light, photosynthesis and photoperiodism vernalisation, effect of temperature, heat units, thermoperiodism. Assimilate partitioning during growth and development, influence of water and mineral nutrition during growth and development, biosynthesis of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscissic acid, ethylene, brasssinosteroids, growth inhibitors, morphactins, role of plant growth promoters and inhibitors. Developmental physiology and biochemistry during dormancy, bud break, juvenility, vegetative to reproductive interphase, flowering, pollination, fertilization and fruit set, fruit drop, fruit growth, ripening and seed development. Growth and developmental process during stress – manipulation of growth and development, impact of pruning and training, chemical manipulations in horticultural crops, molecular and genetic approaches in plant growth development.


Understanding dormancy mechanisms in seeds, tubers and bulbs and stratification of seeds, tubers and bulbs, visit to arid, subtropical and temperate horticultural zones to identify growth and development patterns, techniques of growth analysis, evaluation of photosynthetic efficiency under different environments, study of growth regulator functions, hormone assays, understanding ripening phenomenon in fruits and vegetables, study of impact of physical manipulations on growth and development, study of chemical manipulations on growth and development, understanding stress impact on growth and development


13.  PPT: 513             Biodiversity and Conservation of Fruit Crops          3(2+1)


Biodiversity and conservation; issues and goals, centers of origin of cultivated fruits; primary and secondary centers of genetic diversity. Present status of gene centers; exploration and collection of germplasm; conservation of genetic resources – conservation in situ and ex situ.Germplasm conservation- problem of recalcitrance – cold storage of scions, tissue culture, cryopreservation, pollen and seed storage; inventory of germplasm, introduction of germplasm, plant quarantine. Intellectual property rights, regulatory horticulture. Detection of genetic constitution of germplasm and maintenance of core group. GIS and documentation of local biodiversity, Geographical  indication of following crops: Mango, sapota, citrus, guava, banana, papaya, grapes, jackfruit, custard apple, ber, aonla, apple, plum, litchi


Documentation of germplasm – maintenance of passport data and other records of accessions; field exploration trips, exercise on ex situ conservation – cold storage, pollen/seed storage, cryopreservation, visits to National Gene Bank and other centers of PGR activities. Detection of genetic constitution of germplasm, core sampling, germplasm characterization using molecular techniques.


14.  PPT: 591                                                Maters’ Seminar –I                                        1(1+0)




1.      PPT601                 Advances in Breeding of Fruit Crops                                            3(2+1)


Evolutionary mechanisms,     adaptation  and  domestication, Genetic resources, cytogenetics,  cytomorphology,  chemotaxonomy,  genetics  of important  traits   and  their  inheritance  pattern,  variations  and  natural selection, spontaneous mutations, incompatibility systems in fruits , recent advances   in   crop   improvement   efforts-  introduction   and   selection, chimeras,   apomixis,   clonal   selections,   intergeneric,   interspecific   and intervarietal hybridization,  mutation  and  polyploid  breeding,  resistance breeding                     to biotic  and abiotic stresses,  breeding  for improving quality, molecular  and  transgenic  approaches  in improvement  of  following  fruit crops. Mango, banana, Papaya, grapes, citrus, Guava, sapota, Pineapple, Apple, pear,  and strawberry


Description  and  cataloguing  of germplasm,  pollen viability  tests, pollen germinationsurvey and clonal selection, observations on  pest, disease  and  stress  reactions  in  inbreds  and  hybrids,  use  of mutagenes  and  colchicine  for  inducing  mutation  and  ploidy changes,practices in different methods of breeding fruit crops and in-vitro breeding techniques.


2.      PPT 602               Advances in Production of Fruit Crops -I                         3(2+1)


National and International scenario in fruit production, Recent advances in propagation – root stock  influence, planting systems, High density planting, crop  modeling , Precision farming, decision support systems –  aspects of crop regulation- physical and chemical regulation effects on physiology and development,  influence  of  stress  factors,  strategies  to  overcome  stress effects, integrated   and  modern  approaches  in  water  and nutrient management, Total quality management(TQM) of following crops:  Mango, banana, Papaya, grapes, citrus, Guava, sapota and aonla


Survey  of existing  fruit  cropping  systems and  development  of  a  model cropping system, Estimating nutrient deficiency- estimation of water use efficiency, soil test-crop  response correlations,  practices  in plant growth regulation,  studying  physiological  and  biochemical   responses,  quality analysis.


3.      PPT 603              Advances in Production of Fruit Crops -II                                      3(2+1)


National and International scenario in fruit production, Recent advances in propagation – root stock  influence, planting systems, High density planting, crop  modeling , Precision farming, decision support systems –  aspects of crop regulation- physical and chemical regulation effects on physiology and development,  influence  of  stress  factors,  strategies  to  overcome  stress effects, integrated   and  modern  approaches  in  water  and nutrient management, Total quality management(TQM) of following crops:  Pineapple,  avocado, jack,  Apple, pear, plums,  strawberry,  peach,  apricot, cherries


Survey  of existing  fruit  cropping  systems and  development  of  a  model cropping system, Estimating nutrient deficiency- estimation of water use efficiency, soil test-crop  response correlations,  practices  in plant growth regulation,  studying  physiological  and  biochemical   responses,  quality analysis.


4.      PPT 604              Advances in Growth Regulation of Fruit Crops                                3(2+1)


Ecophysiological  influences  on  growth  and  development  of  fruit  crops- flowering, fruit set- Root  and  canopy  regulation,  study  of  plant  growth  regulators  in  fruit culture-    biosynthesis,  metabolic  and  morphogenetic  effects  of different plant growth promoters and growth retardants. Absorption, translocation and degradation of phytohormones – internal and external factors influencing hormonal synthesis, biochemical action, growth promotion and inhibition, Growth regulation  aspects of propagation, seed and bud dormancy,   fruit   bud   initiation,   regulation   of   flowering,   off   season production. Flower   drop       and      thinning,  fruit set  and             development,    fruit      drop, parthenocarpy, fruit maturity  and  ripening  and           storage,  molecular approaches in crop growth regulation


Root- shoot studies, quantifying the physiological and biochemical effects of physical and chemical growth regulation, bioassay and isolation through chromatographic analysis for auxins, gibberellins, experiments on growth regulation  during  propagation,  dormancy,  flowering,  fruitset  and  fruit development stages.


5.      PPT 605                Genomics and Bioinformatics in  Horticulture                3(2+1)


Primer   on    bioinformatics      and   computational    genomics,  database fundamentals  –  biological  databases,  horticultural  genome  and  protein databases, functional genomics. Dynamic   Programming   Sequence   Alignment,   BLAST   search   engine, FASTA search engine,   Microarrays, Microarray  Clustering  and Classification, Terminologies and Ontologies – EcoCYC knowledge base of E. Coli metabolism – Description of UMLS Semantic Network. Multiple Sequence Alignment, MSA algorithm descriptions, ClustalW, 1D Motifs,   Algorithms  and  Databases,  methods  for  sequence   weighting, BLOCKS   database,  Making  BLOCK  motifs,  PROSITE  database,  3D structure   alignment,   SCOP,   DALI,   LOCK,   MUSTA   algorithm   for geometric hashing and multiple alignment. Hidden  Markov  models ,  Molecular  energetics  and  dynamics ,  Protein structure  prediction,  Genetic  networks –  Modeling  and  Simulation  of Genetic   Regulatory   Systems-   KEGG   database   of   genes   and   gene pathways/networks – EcoCYC database of metabolic pathways in E. Coli – EGF-signal   pathway   modeling,   Gene   finding   algorithms –   Genome Annotation  Assessment  Project  for  Arabidopsis,  Comparative  genomics algorithms, Genome Alignment. 3D  structure  computations, NMR,  Xtallography,  NMR          Structure Determination , X-ray Crystallography Structure Determination, Distance Geometry Description, RNA secondary structure, Molecular Modeling and Drug discovery programs. Phylogenetic algorithms  – Treebase database of phylogenetic information for  plants  mostly,  Tree  of  Life  Page,  Samples  from  the  Tree  of  Life, Ribosomal  Database  Project, Natural  Language Processing , Proteomics, 3D Motifs,  Applications and Integration with Horticulture, Final Thoughts.


Computers,   Operating   systems   and   Programming   languages,   Internet Resources,  Horticultural  Genome  and  Protein  Databases,  BLAST/RNA Structure,  Sequence  Alignment,  Microarray  Data  Analysis,  Ontology, MSA,  HMMs,  Identification  of  Functional  Sites  in  Structures,  Protein Structure Prediction – Phylogenetics – Gene Finding – Molecular Modeling and Drug Discovery Software – Assignments.


6.      PPT 606 : Biotic and Abiotic Stress Management in  Horticultural   Crops            3(2+1)


Stress – definition,  classification,  stresses  due  to  water  (high  and  low), temperature  (high  and  low),  radiation,  wind,  soil  conditions  (salinity, alkalinity, ion toxicity, fertilizer toxicity, etc.).Pollution – increased level of CO2, industrial wastes, impact of stress in horticultural crop production, stress indices, physiological and biochemical factors associated with stress, horticultural crops suitable for different stress situations.Crop modeling for stress situations, cropping system, assessing the stress through   remote  sensing,  understanding  adaptive  features  of  crops  for survival under stress, interaction among different stress and their impact on crop growth and productivity.Greenhouse  effect  and  methane  emission  and  its  relevance  to  abiotic stresses, use of anti transpirants and PGRs in stress management, mode of action and practical use, HSP inducers in stress management techniques of soil moisture conservation, mulching, hydrophilic polymers.Rain   water   harvesting,   increasing   water   use   efficiency,   skimming technology,  contingency  planning  to  mitigate  different  stress  situations, cropping systems, stability and sustainability indices.


Seed treatment /hardening practices, container seedling production, analysis of soil moisture estimates (FC, ASM, PWP), analysis of plant stress factors, RWC,  chlorophyll flurosence,  chlorophyll stability  index,  ABA content, plant waxes, stomatal diffusive resistance, transpiration, photosynthetic rate etc.  under  varied  stress  situations,  influence  of  stress  on  growth  and development of seedlings  and roots,  biological  efficiencies,  WUE,  solar energy  conversion   and  efficiency,  crop  growth  sustainability  indices, economics  of  stress   management,  visit  to  orchards  and  water   shed locations.


7.      PPT 607: COMMERCIAL FRUIT NURSERY                                            2(1+1)

Theory: Selection of soil, locality, site for fruit nursery, progeny tree, structures for a nursery. Propagation of different fruit plants, care of young nursery plants, maintenance, lifting and packing operations, preparation of a calendar for nursery operations, Economics for development of a fruit nursery. Nursery registration act.

Practical: Planning and lay out of a fruit nursery. Preparation of a nursery bed and planting techniques for different fruit crops. Layout of different propagation structure. Methods of lifting and packing of fruit plants.


8.      PPT 608:  Advances in Post Harvest Physiology                                          2(2+0)

Theory: The general biology of plant senescence, control of RNA and enzyme synthesis during fruit ripening, Respiration and energy metabolism in senescence plant tissue, Enzyme activities and post-Harvest changes, plant membrane lipids, changes and alteration during aeging and senescence, hormonal regulation of senescence, aeging and ripening. Formation of enzymatic products in the fruits during growth and storage. Stress metabolites in postharvest fruits and vegetables- role of ethylene. Post harvest pathology- etiology of postharvest disease, important postharvest disease, host pathogen interaction in postharvest disease, control of postharvest disease, hormonal and chemical postharvest treatments, which influence the postharvest quality, maturity and storability of fruits.


9.      PPT 609:       Advances in Food Preservation                                               2(2+0)


Principles of Hurdle Technology- thermal and non-thermal methods as hurdles, microbial stability and quality aspect. Minimally Processed foods, Intermediate moisture foods, role of water activity in food preservation, Chemicals and Biochemicals Used in Food Preservation- Natural food preservatives, bacteriocins;Pulsed electric field- microbial inactivation, application, present status and future scope; Fundamentals and Applications of High Pressure Processing to Foods, Advances in Use of High Pressure to Processing and Preservation of Plant Foods, Commercial High-Pressure Equipment; Food Irradiation—An Emerging Technology; Ultraviolet Light and Food Preservation; Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound; Use of oscillating Magnetic Fields as a Nonthermal Technology; Nonthermal Technologies in Combination with Other Preservation Factors. Preservation by ohmic heating-Advances in Ohmic Heating and Moderate Electric Field (MEF) Processing; Radio-Frequency Heating in Food Processing; Current State of Microwave Applications to Food Processing; Supercritical Fluid Extraction: An Alternative to Isolating bioactive compounds.

10.  PPT: 591                                Doctoral Seminar –I                                       1(1+0)

 11.  PPT: 592                                Doctoral Seminar –II                                     1(1+0)



  • 3 numbers of M.Sc. and Ph.D. students as per provision in each year

M. Sc. Students

The department has started M.Sc. course curricula from the year of 2005.

Sl. No. Name of student Supervisor Year of admission Year of Awarded
 1 Miss Chandrima Pal Prof. S.K.Ghosh


 2 Miss Nilanjana Roy Dr. C.P.Suresh


 3 Sri Ranjit Pal Dr. C.P.Suresh


 4 Miss Sangita Mehta Prof. S.K.Ghosh


 5 Sri Shubhajyoti Sarkar Dr. P.K.Paul


 6 Sri Krishanu Ghosh Dr. C.P.Suresh


 7 Sri Suresh Kumar Mahato Dr. C.P.Suresh


 8 Sri Karma Sherpa Dr. P.K.Paul


 9 Sri Biju Pariar Dr. C.P.Suresh


 10 Sri Debabrata Sarkar Dr. P.K.Paul


 11 Sri Anant Tamang Dr. C.P.Suresh


 12 Sri Saurabh Pradhan Mr. N.Bhowmick


 13 Sri Niyat Thapa Mr. N.Bhowmick


 14 Miss Piyali Dutta Mr. N.Bhowmick


 15 Sri Arkendu Ghosh Mr. N.Bhowmick


 16 Miss Koyel Dey Mr. N.Bhowmick



Ph. D. Students

Sl.No.  Name of student Supervisor Year of admission Year of award
1 Sri Dhananjay Kumar Singh Prof. S.K.Ghosh 1998-99 2003
2 Sri Arun Kumar Das Prof. A. Roy 2004-05 Discontinued
3 Sri Prodyut Kr. Paul(In-service) Prof. S. K. Ghosh 2004-05 2008
4 Sri Prahlad Deb Dr. C.P.Suresh 2005-06 2010
5 Sri Pratap Subba Prof. S. K. Ghosh 2008-09 2013
6 Miss Karma Diki Bhutia Dr. C.P.Suresh 2009-10 2013
7 Miss Seveno Seletsu Dr. P. K. Paul 2009-10 2013
8 Sri Sarad Gurung(In-service) Dr. C.P.Suresh 2009-10 Thesis Submitted
9 Sri Ravi Kumar Kuna Prof. S.K.Ghosh 2011-12 Continuing
10 Miss M. R. Bhanusree Prof. S.K.Ghosh 2012-13 Continuing
11 Sri Saurabh Pradhan Prof. S.K.Ghosh 2012-13 Continuing

Faculty and Staff members of the Department  

p k paulProf. Prodyut Kumar Paul 

Professor & Dean, Faculty of Horticulture
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]

More details  …


n bhowmick

Dr. Sarad Gurung
Professor & In-charge, Regional Research Station (Hill Zone), Kalimpong
E-mail: [email protected]/[email protected]

More details

Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick

Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick 
Professor & Head
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

More details


Dr. Mutum Preema DeviDr. Mutum Preema Devi 

Assistant Professor
E-mail: [email protected]

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Dr. Aditi Chakrabarty Dr. Aditi Chakrabarty  

Assistant Professor
E-mail: [email protected]

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Dr. Binayak Chakrabarty Dr. Binayak Chakraborty  

Assistant Professor (Regional Research Station, Terai Zone, Pundibari)
E-mail: [email protected]

More details

 nitish ch saha Mr. Nitish Chandra Saha 
Phone: +91-7319555043
Designation: Technical Assistant Grade-I
 ananda sarkar Mr. Ananda Sarkar 
Phone: +91-9064088820
Designation: Laboratory Attendant (Gr-II)


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