- B. Sc. Syllabus
- P.G. Syllabus -Post-Harvest Management
- P.G. Syllabus- Fruit Science
- Faculty & Staff
- Degree Awarded
- Annual Report
Department of Pomology and Post Harvest Technology
|Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick E-mail: [email protected], firstname.lastname@example.org, [email protected] Mobile: +919433438982, 9641289279|
The Department of Pomology and Post Harvest Technology is an academic department of the Faculty of Horticulture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, conducting under graduate. The Department has started the M.Sc. course curricula from 2005 for M.Sc. (Horticulture) in Pomology & Post-Harvest Technology and subsequently from 2017-18 academic session the Department has started offering M.Sc. degree in two different disciplines, viz., M.Sc. (Horticulture) in Fruit Science and M.Sc. (Horticulture) in Post Harvest Technology. Later from 2022-23 as per the BSMA recommendation the Post-Harvest Management has changed to M.Sc. (Horticulture) in Post-Harvest Management
- Teaching (Under Graduate, M.Sc., & Ph.D.)
- Collection of germplasm of different fruit crops, Cultivation and orchard management
- Post harvest management of horticultural crops
- Research on fruit crops, including value addition and product development from horticultural crops
- Impart training on various aspects of fruit cultivation and post harvest management
- Development of appropriate fruit based cropping systems for different agro-climatic zones.
- Development and evaluation of improved varieties and hybrids of fruits with good quality high production potential, biotic and abiotic resistance and suitable for export.
- Development and field testing of integrated management of nutrients, diseases and pests of important fruit crops to reduce input costs, environmental pollution and to avoid pesticide-residue problems.
- Production of quality planting materials of banana, mango, papaya, guava, litchi, sapota, lemon and minor fruits for planting as well as for distribution to the farmers at a reasonable price through Directorate of Farms.
- Protected cultivation of strawberry.
- Development of package of practices for production of pineapple, banana and papaya.
WHAT THE REGION PROMISES?
- Existence of Agri-Export Zones of Fruit crops like Mango, Pineapple, Litchi
- Very promising region for mango, pineapple, litchi, citrus, banana, guava, jackfruit, ber, papaya etc
- Promising zone of minor fruit crops like Indian Olive (Jalpai), Burmese Grape (Latka), Indian Coffee Plum (Panial) etc.
- Great opportunity for expansion of area under fruit crops
- Possibility for cultivating varieties with industry and export demand
- Prospect for increasing profitability of fruit cultivation by many fold
- Offers good opportunity for the development of fruit processing industry
- Huge scope for development of postharvest business
CONSTRAINTS FOR DEVELOPMENT
- Supply of genuine planting material
- Growing traditional varieties
- Poor canopy management
- Low planting density
- Micronutrient Deficiency
- Lack of standard package of practices of fruit crops
- Lack of awareness regarding quality
- Lack of crop diversification
- Social constraints
- Lack of assured market
- Poor post harvest infrastructure
- Replacing traditional varieties
- Introducing new crops like Passion fruit, Rambutan, Dragon fruit, Thailand Hog Plum, Ber (BAU, Apple), Durian, low chilling Pear & Peach, Strawberry, Persimmon) etc.
- Promoting crop diversification
- Encouraging high density planting
- Efforts to tackle micronutrient deficiency
- Rejuvenation of old orchards
- Strategies to be developed to manage die-back in mandarin, heart rot in pineapple, fruit borer and other pest complex in mango.
- Generate locally available processing technologies.
- Means to minimize production cost of various fruits.
- Techniques for extraction of fibre from pineapple and banana.
- Specific research for utilization of biomass from various crop wastes through composting would be undertaken.
- Formulation of new fruit products from pineapple, mango, litchi etc.
- Formulation of de-acidified fruit juice beverages from lime, lemon, passion fruit etc.
- Techniques for preparation of beverages, leather and other products from different fruit crops.
- Techniques for efficient extraction of pectin from different fruit wastes
- Intensive training and awareness program
- Encouraging private entrepreneurs into nursery business and post harvest business
- Developing proper market intelligence
- Establishing video call centers
- Encouraging establishment of processing industries.
ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTTill date 8 numbers of M.Sc. students and 6 numbers of Ph. D. students have successfully completed their studies.
A Practical Manual, was published from the Department of Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar during 2005
DEVELOPMENTAL ACHIEVEMENTGermplasm blocks of guava (8 cultivars), litchi (7 cultivars), mango (10 cultivars), acid lime (5 cvs. Kagzi, Sai Sarbati, Jai Devi, Pramalini, Vikram), citrus rootstock (8 types) has developed with an aim to produce planting materials for the growers and conducting research trial. The following orchards were developed for conducting UG/PG practical and Research trials:
- A mango orchard with 27 varieties
- Assam Lemon orchard having more than 300 numbers of plants
- Hybrid mango block of having 6 hybrids
- Guava varietal block (8 cultivars)
- Guava orchard (cv. L 49) having 50 number of plants
- Litchi varietal block (7 cultivars)
- Sapota orchard (cv. Cricket Bal ) having 50 plants
- Water apple orchards (3 types)
- Minor fruit block (Aonla, Indian Hog plum etc.)
Seven different treatments combination of commercial formulation of growth regulators (cytozyme and biozyme) and micronutrients (tracel2) were evaluated against the control (distilled water ). Though each formulation has beneficial role in improving the fruit physical and quality characters of fruits of pineapple, the treatment combination cytozyme @ 0.10% + tracel 2 @ 0.40% was the best in this regard.
Ethrel@25 ppm sprayed at 40-50 leaves stage was the best for fruiting characteristics of pineapple in the Cooch Behar zone of West Bengal.
Pineapple cubes packed in glass bottles were found to absorb less moisture as compared to other packaging materials upto 6 months followed by 25µm thick polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) pouch.
The effect of NAA and ethrel on the induction of flowering on pineapple was studied and concluded that ethrel 50 ppm in combination with NAA 10 ppm can be used for good quality fruits as well as higher yield and quality.
Morpho-taxonomical characterization and evaluation of 10 mango cultivars (Gulabkhas, Dashehari, Arka Aruna, Biswanath Chatterjee, Amrapali, Mallika, Chinese Dofala, Jessore Dofala, Alphonso, Bangalora) were studied and concluded that the overall performance of the cultivars Amrapali, Jessore Dofala, Mallika, Gulabkhas and Dashehari was best in terai region of WB inspite of some negligible demerits as these cultivars can be commercially grown.
Cultivar Karpuravalli performed best regarding the yield (30.6 kg/plant) followed by Rasthali or Malbhog (25.4 kg/plant) and other yield attributing characters. Among the quality parameters TSS was found to maximum in Karpuravalli (22.6 oBrix) followed by Rasthali (19.2 oBrix). Total sugar content was also highest in Karpuravalli (21.48%) with minimum acidity (0.42%). Karpuravalli was found to suitable large scale plantation in Terai Zone of West Bengal.
Genetic diversity was studied among 28 land races of banana collected from traditional farming area of North Bengal and North East India using Random Amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The PCR products produced by 10 polymorphic primers revealed 66 bands, 55 of which were polymorphic (72.7%). A dendogram was constructed based on Dice’s coefficient matrix by un-weighted pair group mean analysis using NTSYS-PC, which reveal two major groups of banana: plains (North Bengal) and high hills (Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim). The extent of variability was 86.96% and the average inter and intra-population variability ranged from 45 to 52%.
The performance of Banana cv. Nendran under different doses of NPK was studied. The treatment T6 (N 250, P 80, K 350 g/plant) recorded significantly maximum pseudo-stem height, pseudo-stem girth, no. of leaves, least phyllochron, minimum days for shooting and maturity, whereas, parameters like petiole length, leaf area, number of suckers per plant, fruit size, finger number per branch, hand number per branch, hand weight, bunch weight, pulp% , pulp: peel ratio, dry matter %, TSS, total sugar, reducing sugar and minimum acidity were prominent under T9 (N 250, P 80, K 400 g/plant) over control.
Effect of different micronutrients and growth regulators on the performance and post harvest life of banana (cv. Malbhog, Musa, AAB) was studied. It was found that out of the growth regulators used combination of 100 ppm 2,4-D was the best whereas among micronutrient treatments. 2.0g/plant borax along with 2.0g/plant zinc sulphate as soil application or 0.5% borax along with 0.25% Zinc Sulphate as foliar application was considered best for overall growth, yield and quality of malbhog. Green life, yellow life and shelf life were maximum under 05% KMnO4 solution for 15 minutes with poly ethylene packaging in controlled temperature condition, i.e., 12.5OC. Spraying GA3 and 2,4-D both at 100 ppm along with 0.25% borax and 0.25% zinc sulphate was best for production of fruits with less presence of lump.
Among the six papaya cultivars (Pusa Delicious, Pusa Giant, Pusa Majesty, Pusa Nanha, Pusa Dwarf and Ranchi) tested, Cv. Ranchi was found superior in overall growth characters. However, cv. Pusa Giant produce the highest yield of 79.20 t/ha. But the quality was found superior in cv. Pusa Delicious.
Papaya plants cv. Ranchi supplied with 400g N, 350g P2O5 and 600g K2O recorded highest yield of 94.49 t/ha with good quality fruits.
A trial was conducted to study the efficacy of PSM (Bacillus megatherium +Aspergillus awamori) and VAM (Glomus mosseae + G. fasciculatum) biofertilizers with graded levels of phosphorus (P2O5 at 50,100,150 and 200g) on growth and nutrient uptake of Papaya cv. CO-2. A general dose of nitrogen (300g N/Plant) and potash (400gK/Plant) was applied with FYM during transplantation. Chemical fertilizers were applied in four split doses in the form of urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash. Maximum plant height (192.67 cm), girth (24.00 cm) and total number of leaves (25.17) were observed in VAM + 200g P2O5. VAM were also found effective in increasing height and girth than PSM. Early flowering was noticed due to application of increased phosphorus level and bio-fertilizer inoculation. Highest yield (64.85tons/ha) was resulted due to the inoculation effect of PSM and 200g P2O5 treatment combination. P & K content of leaves increased with increasing phosphorus level and bio-fertilizer application.
Treatment of papaya seed, after removing the mucilaginous coating immediately after collecting from fresh ripe fruits, with GA3 @150 ppm was found best in respect to seed germination (72.2%) followed by sodium thiosulphate @20 ppm (68.1%). But maximum seedling growth was observed under GA3 @ 200 ppm. Borax @0.50% along with ZnSO4 @ 0.25% also markedly improved the seedling growth.
Spraying of different level of boron, Zinc and their combinations improved the growth yield and quality of papaya plants cv. Ranchi. However, among the various treatments papaya plants sprayed with borax @0.5% +ZnSO4@ 0.25 was found best for increasing plant growth, fruit yield(37.20 kg/plant) and qualitative parameters(TSS-6.81OBrix; Ascorbic acid-57.11 mg/100g and β-carotene-3327.14μg/100g).
Maximum survival (89.83%), maximum number of branches (5.08), leaves (34.30), roots (35.66), leaf chlorophyll content (45.41 mg/100g), stem diameter (10.64 mm), root diameter (2.68 mm), average length of roots (15.83 cm), root dry weight (1.48 g), and shoot dry weight (22.73g) were observed in lemon cutting (semi-hard wood) treated with IBA at 2500 ppm, followed by NAA @1250 ppm. However, higher dose of IBA showed an inhibitory effect on most of the characters.
Green mould and blue mould of mandarin orange caused by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively contributed 20-30% of the total post harvest losses in Cooch Behar district during the months of Novemebr-February. The incidence of disease increased from November to January causing nearly 2.6-3.9% of monetary loss in pundibari market.
To develop a self stable product from orange segment using osmotic dehydration, osmotic dehydration was optimised at temperature of 37.50OC, time of 277.50 minutes, agitation of 52.50 rpm, sugar concentration of 44.13% and vacuum drying was optimised at temperature at 56.08OC, duration 1868 minutes, and pressure of 36.22 kPa. The final quality of the osmotically dehydrated orange segments was found to have a moisture content of 55.11+3.59%, water activity of 0.767±0.036, total sugar of 34.83±2.76%, vitamin C content of 421.244±3.799 mg/100g, colour (L*, a*, b*) 53.21±1.55, 11.49±0.66, 21.26±4.12, texture (firmness, stickiness) 0.163±0.03N, 0.0016±0.00009N, antioxidant of 71.34±1.39%.
The agro- climatic condition of Cooch Behar dist. of West Bengal is quite suited for commercial cultivation of Litchi. Among the existed Litchi plants 6.25%were drooping and rest were spreading or upright in nature. Flowering started from 3rd week of February and continued upto 4th week of March. About 44% plants showed compact inflorescences and other showed medium and loose inflorescences. Maximum trees (62.5%) showed mild biennial bearing habit which might be due to the poor management practices and inferior planting materials and it decreased gradually with the advancement of the age. Extent of fruit drop were high in 27.78% trees and it was low in 20.83%trees rest plants showed medium extent of fruit drop.
Nine promising cultivars of strawberry were grown during September, 2000 to April 2001 at the University Farm of Pundibari to estimate leaf area under non-destructive way, as leaf area is one of the dependable bases to assess the production potential of a crop variety. Co-relation co-efficient between length and breadth, measurement of side and top leaflets with leaf area obtained leaf area meter for each cultivar and over the cultivars for the estimation of area of trifoliate leaves or its leaflets (side and top) using measurements of lengths and breadths of top and side leaflets. The estimated values of leaf area calculated with the help of regression equation derived from the length and breadth measurements of side and top leaflets of a cultivar varied significantly (<0.1%) from actual leaf area obtained under leaf area meter for that cultivar, indicating a high degree of precision of the non destructive way of leaf area estimation. The common equation irrespective of cultivars for the estimation of area of trifoliate leaf may be Y=165.91X-2716.35 or Y=161.03X1-2121.8, where Y=estimated area of trifoliate leaf, X=breadth of top leaflet and X1=breadth of side leaflets.
Effect of different nutrient and mulching materials on yield, quality as shelf life of strawberry cv. Chandler was studied and concluded that using straw mulch has a good prospect of getting higher yield and profits.
Assessment of quality characteristics upon enzymes assisted juice extraction from plum was made. The results of the study suggested that pectinase enzymes at a concentration of 10 units/ml were found to increase yield significantly over control. The treatment with celluase @ 6 units/ml was found to produce juice with best colour properties. Considering all parameter studies it was concluded that fruit mash with Hemicellulase @ 9 units/ml was found best.
For seedling production, treatment of jackfruit seeds with GA3 @ 100ppm was considered best as seedlings possess higher plant height, more number of leaves per plant and moderately higher survivability.
The physico-chemical characteristics of three cultivars of sapota (Cricket Ball, Kalipatti, and Badami) were assessed during the 1999-2000. The average fruit weight varied from 84.33 g in Cricket Ball to 65.66g in Kalipatti and it was intermediate (78.00 g) in Badami. Fruits of Cricket Ball content maximum TSS (20.8%) followed by Badami (18.53%) and it was minimum (18.20%) in Kalipatti. The titrable acidity of all the varieties was almost same and the lowest value of 0.17% was recorded in Cricket Ball. The ascorbic acid content was very low in all the varieties ranging from 3.63 mg/100 g pulp in Kalipatti to 2.77 mg/100g of pulp in Cricket Ball.
Shelf life of yellow and purple passion fruit squash was studied. Determination of shelf life was based on organoleptic score and mould count. After storing for six month best composition for passion fruit squash was found as follows:
|Passion fruit squash||Juice (ml)||Sugar (mg)||Water (ml)||Citric acid (mg)||Preservative (mg)|
0.6 (Potassium metabisulphite)
0.75 (Sodium benzoate)
Latka is an ever green, short to medium height plant belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It bears flowers during March-April and fruits are available during rainy season, 3-4 months after flowering. Matured laka fruits are yellow or yellowish brown in colour. Sub-acid latka is consumed fresh.
Among the physical parameters fruit showed total weight and peel weight of 9.0 g and 3.75 g, respectively. Among the bio-chemical parameters, fruit resembles 9.86Obrix TSS, 4.42 % total sugar, 2.93 % reducing sugar and 2.1 % acidity.
An attempt has been made to evaluate the physical and biochemical properties of different Burmese grape genotypes in northern parts of West Bengal. The present investigation was carried out with twelve germplasms. The data represented from the experiment revealed that the germplasms varied among themselves regarding different physical and biochemical attributes of fruits in fully ripe condition. The maturity for fruit harvesting is least in Accession No. 9 (78.33 days) followed by Accession No. 8 (80.66 days) and it is maximum (90.33 days) for the Accession No. 7. For most of the desirable attributes, the Accession No. 11 showed better response ike maximum length (3.383 cm), diameter (3.513 cm), weight (19.93 gm), juice content (74.10 ml/10 fruit) and lowest acidity (1.996%).
Developmental pattern of Burmese grape was carried out in respect to different physical and biochemical aspects of fruits on the plants of farmers house hold nearer to the Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal. All the plants aged between ten to fifteen years and were well grown, free from pests and diseases. After fruit set, the required fruit bunches were tagged on all sides to obtain uniform result. The fruits were harvested and subjected for studies on physico-chemical changes from 30th days after fruit set and continued up to 86th days after fruit set at weekly interval. Fruit size (length and diameter), juice content increased while peel thickness and seed weight decreased with advancement of maturity. Notable increase in TSS, sugar content and sugar: acid ratio were observed with decrease in acidity. At the time of harvest the fruits have attained TSS around 12.13OBrix, acidity less than 2.16%, 4.18% total sugar and pericarp colour should be yellowish green. Considering the fruit size, fruit weight and all the fruit quality characteristics it is suggested that the Burmese grape can be harvested in between 80-85 days after fruit set for best desert quality.
Tree growth habit and crown shape of Burmese grape was semi erect and irregular, respectively. The flower bud differentiation of male and female accessions started from first week of February to mid week of February. During the growth and development of the fruits the physical parameters like fruit length, breadth, weight, peel weight, seed weight and pulp percentage increased significantly after every seven days till maturity.
PANIAL/INDIAN PLUM/COFFEE PLUM (FLACOURTIA JANGOMAS)
Panial is a short to medium tree having spines in the young branches belongs to the family Flacourtiaceae. Flowers appear during April-May and fruits are harvested in August-September. Ripe fruits are brown or brownish red in colour. It is consumed as fresh fruits but fruits have good potential for the preparation of Jam. A typical local practice is that after harvesting, the matured fruits are gently pressed in between the palms of both hand before consumption as fresh fruits.
JALPAI/INDIAN OLIVE (ELAEOCARPUS FLORIBUNDUS)
Jalpai belongs to the family Elaeocarpaceae, is a medium to tall tree which bears flowers during April-May and fruits mature for harvest in August to October, Fruits are greenish in colour, single seeded and the shape resembles to olive fruit. Matured fruits are mainly used for the preparation of pickles and chutney. Considering their importance, it is urgently necessary to take initiatives for standardizing their package of practices as well as for exploring their product diversification.
OTHER MINOR FRUIT CROPS
Physico-chemical characteristics and utilization aspects of 26 different minor wild fruits of Sikkim were studied. These fruits are available round the year and have a great potential either for medicinal purposes or for producing different value added products or can be exploited for various non-fruit utilities like charcoal purpose, fuel wood etc. Such documentation will benefit the community and also preserves their cultural pride.
INTER CROPPING IN MANGO ORCHARD
The performance of elephant foot yam (Amorphopahllus paeoniifolius) sown in two different depth (10,15 cm) grown as intercrop with mango spaced at 6×6 m and 8×8 m revealed that under terai zone of West Bengal elephant foot yam yielded highest when sown at a depth of 10 cm and inter cropped with mango spaced at 8×8m.
Out of sixteen different treatments using different concentrations and combination of NAA and MH on post harvest life of potato dipping in NAA 2000 ppm for 30 minutes was considered best in reducing physiological loss in weight and percentage of rotting and sprouting of tubers for a period of 90 days.
Six popular local ginger genotypes of six districts of North Bengal was collected to estimate the quality parameters of their rhizome. It was found that selection- 2 is highest in yield, selection- 5 is suitable for dried and bleached ginger as it possesses highest dry matter content and lowest crude fiber content, with higher yield. Selection – 4 is most suitable for its oleoresin content.
The investigation on the suitability of some post harvest treatment combinations for better shelf life of green chilli revealed that treatment with GA3@150 ppm and packaging with LDPE of 100 gauge having 5% perforation and kept at 6-8OC temperature with 75% R.H. was most effective and suitable for increasing the shelf life of chilli having less effect in quality in respect to less physiological loss in weight, highest green colour retention and highest ascorbic acid content. When chemicals are not available the harvested fresh fruits can be stored after wrapping with PVC or LDPE and should be kept within cold condition (6-8OC temperature with 75%R.H.) for better shelf life.
UNDER GRADUATE COURSES OFFERED BY THE DEPT. OF POMOLOGY & POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY
|Sl||Course Code||Title of courses||Credit||Term||Offered to||Associate Faculty/Dept.|
|1||PPT 101||Fundamentals of Horticulture||1+1||1st||B.Sc. (Hons.) Ag B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||Vegetable & Spice Crops|
|2||PPT 102||Plant Propagation and Nursery Management||1+1||1st||B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||--|
|3||PPT 151||Orchard and Estate Management||1+1||2nd||B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||--|
|4||PPT 152||Dry Land Horticulture||1+1||2nd||B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||Faculty of Technology|
|5||PPT 201||Temperate Fruit crops||1+1||3rd||B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||--|
|6||PPT 251||Tropical and Subtropical Fruits||3+1||4th||B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||--|
|7||PPT 252||Production Technology for Fruit and Plantation Crops||1+1||4th||B.Sc. (Hons.) Ag||Plantation Crops & Processing|
|8||PPT 351||Breeding of Fruit and Plantation Crops||2+1||6th||B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||Plantation Crops & Processing|
|9||PPT 352||Principles of Food Science and Nutrition||2+0||6th||B.Sc. (Hons.) Ag B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||--|
|10||PPT 353||Post Harvest Management and Value Addition of Fruits & Vegetables||1+1||6th||B.Sc. (Hons.) Ag||--|
|TOTAL CREDITS: 14+9|
UNDER GRADUATE COURSES ASSOCIATED TOTHE DEPT. OF POMOLOGY & POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY
|Sl||Course Code||Title of courses||Credit||Term||Offered to||Offering Faculty/Deptt|
|1||PCP 151||Growth and Development of Horticultural Crops||1+1||2nd||B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||Plantation Crops & Processing|
|2||HOR 151||Principles of Horticultural Crops & Plant Protection||1+1||2nd||B. Tech in Agril. Eng||Technology|
|3||PCP 351||Processing of Horticultural Crops||1+2||5th||B.Sc. (Hons.) Hort||Plantation Crops & Processing|
|4||ELC 352||Food Safety and Standards||2+1||6th||B.Sc. (Hons.) Ag.||Agriculture|
|TOTAL CREDITS: 5+5|
SYLLABUS OF COURSES OFFERED FROM THE DEPT. OF POMOLOGY & POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGYPPT –151: Orchard and Estate Management (1+1)
Orchard &estate management, importance, objectives, merits and demerits, Clean cultivation, sod culture, Sod mulch, inorganic and organic mulches & its merits, demerits; Weed management & Herbicides; Cropping Systems: Intercropping, Multitier cropping, Green manuring& its merits, demerits; Tropical, sub-tropical and temperate horticultural systems, Competitive and complimentary effect of root and shoot systems, Systems of irrigation, Soil management in relation to nutrient and water uptake, Factors influencing the fruitfulness and unfruitfulness, Rejuvenation of old orchards, Fertility management in horticultural crops, manures and fertilizers, Principles of organic farming; Integrated nutrient management; Integrated pest management, Crop model and crop regulation, Climate aberrations and mitigation measures of Horticultural cropsPractical
Layout of different systems of orchard and estate; Soil management; Clean, inter, cover and mixed cropping; Fillers, Use of mulch materials: organic and inorganic, Moisture conservation, Weed control, Layout of various irrigation systemsPPT – 152: Dry Land Horticulture (1+1)
Definition, importance and limitation of dry land horticulture, present status and future scope. Constraints encounter in dry lands; Agro-climatic features in arid, semi arid areas; Techniques and management of dry land horticulture. watershed development, soil and water conservation methods-terraces, contour bunds,etc; Methods of control and impounding of run-off water-farm ponds, trenches, macro catch pits, etc., in-situ water harvesting methods, micro catchment, different types of tree basins etc.; Methods of reducing evapotranspiration, use of shelter belts, mulches, antitranspirants, growth regulators, etc.; water use efficiency-need based, economic and conjunctive use of water, micro systems of irrigation etc.; Selection of plants having drought resistance. Special techniques, planting and after care-use of seedling races, root stocks, in-situ grafting, deep pitting/planting, canopy management etc.; Characters and special adaptation of crops: ber, aonla, annona, jamun, wood apple, bael, pomegranate, carissa, date palm, phalsa, fig, west Indian cherry and tamarind.
Mapping of arid and semi-arid zones; Study of rainfall patterns; Contour bunding/trenching, micro catchments, soil erosion and its control; Study of evapotranspiration, mulches and micro irrigation systems; Special techniques of planting and aftercare in dry lands; Study of morphological and anatomical features of drought tolerant fruit crops.PPT – 251: Tropical and Sub –Tropical Fruits (3+1)
Horticultural classification of fruits including genome classification; Horticultural zones of India; Detailed study of area, production and export potential, varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation techniques, planting density and systems, after care, training and pruning. Management of water, nutrient and weeds, special horticultural techniques including plant growth regulators, their solution preparation and use in commercial orchards; Physiological disorders; Post-harvest technology, harvest indices, harvesting methods, grading, packaging and storage of the following crops: mango, banana, guava, pineapple, jackfruit litchi, pomegranate, baelamla, sapota,ber, rambutan, breadfruit rose apple, grapes, citrus, papaya, anona, fig, avocado, mangosteen, carambola, durian, bilimbi, loquat, passion fruit. Bearing in mango, causes and control measures of special production problems, alternate and irregular bearing overcome, control measures. Seediness and kokkan disease in banana, Bearing in citrus, citrus decline and casual factors and their management. Bud forecasting in grapes; Sex expression and seed production in papaya, latex extraction and crude papain production, economic of production.
Description and identification of varieties of tropical & sub-tropical fruit crops. Training and pruning of different tropical & sub-tropical fruit crops. Selection of site and planting system. Pre-treatment of banana suckers, desuckering in banana. Sex forms in papaya. Use of plastics in fruit production. Visit to commercial orchards and diagnosis of maladies. Manure and fertilizer application including bio-fertilizer in fruit crops. Preparation and application of growth regulators in different tropical & sub-tropical fruit crops. Seed production in papaya. Latex extraction and preparation of crude papain. Ripening of fruits, grading and packaging. Production economics for tropical and sub-tropical fruitsPPT – 252: Production Technology for Fruit and Plantation Crops (1+1)
Importance and scope of fruit and plantation crop industry in India, Importance of rootstocks, Production technologies for the cultivation of major fruits: mango, banana, guava, litchi, sapota, pear, peach, walnut, Citrus, grape, papaya, apple, almond. Production technologies for the cultivation of minor fruits- pineapple, pomegranate, jackfruit, date, ber, strawberry.Production technologies for the cultivation of plantation crops-coconut, areca-nut, cashew, tea, coffee & rubber.Practical
Seed propagation, Scarification and stratification of seeds, Propagation methods for fruit and plantation crops, Description and identification of fruit, Preparation of plant bio regulators and their uses, Important pests, diseases and physiological disorders of above fruit and plantation crops, Visit to commercial orchardsPPT 351: Breeding of Fruits & Plantation Crops (2+1)
History of fruit breeding, importance of fruit production; Distribution, traits, breeding strategies; Breeding procedure (clonal selection, bud mutations, mutagenesis and its application in crop improvement, policy manipulations, in vitro breeding tools). Taxonomy, floral biology and achievements by different breeding methods; Objectives, Inheritance pattern in mango, citrus, banana, grape, guava, papaya, litchi, pomegranate. Breeding strategies, clonal selection, bud mutations, mutagenesis and its application in crop improvement – policy manipulations – in vitro breeding tools of important plantation cropsPractical
Exercise on floral biology of different fruits, Exercise on floral biology of different plantation crops, Emasculation and pollination procedures, Hybrid seed germination, Raising and evaluation of segregating populations, Use of mutagens to induce mutations and polyploidyPPT 352: Principles of Food Science and Nutrition (2+0)
Concepts of Food Science: definitions, measurements, density, phase change, pH, osmosis, surface tension, colloidal systems etc.; Food composition and chemistry of water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, flavours and important reactions, colours, vitamins, minerals and miscellaneous bioactives. Food microbiology (bacteria, yeast, moulds). Spoilage of fresh & processed foods. Production of fermented foods. Principles and methods of food processing and preservation (use of heat, low temperature, chemicals, radiation, drying etc.). Food and nutrition: Malnutrition (over and under nutrition), nutritional disorders. Energy metabolism (carbohydrate, fat, proteins). Balanced/modified diets, menu planning. New trends in food science and nutrition.PPT 353: Post Harvest management and value addition of fruits and vegetables (1+1)
Importance of post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables, extent and possible causes of post harvest losses, Pre-harvest factors affecting postharvest quality, Maturity, ripening and changes occurring during ripening, Respiration and factors affecting respiration rate; Harvesting and field handling, Storage (ZECC, cold storage, CA, MA, and hypobaric), Value addition concept, principles and methods of preservation, Intermediate moisture food- Jam, jelly, marmalade, preserve, candy – Concepts and Standards. Fermented and non-fermented beverages. Tomato products- Concepts and Standards. Drying/ Dehydration of fruits and vegetables – Concept and methods, osmotic drying. Canning -– Concepts and Standards. Packaging of products.Practical
Applications of different types of packaging, containers for shelf life extension; Effect of temperature on shelf life and quality of produce; Demonstration of chilling and freezing injury in vegetables and fruits, Extraction and preservation of pulps and juices; Preparation of jam, jelly, RTS, nectar, squash, osmotically dried products, fruit bar and candy and tomato products, canned products; Quality evaluation of products – physico-chemical and sensory. Visit to processing unit/ industry.
SYLLABUS OF COURSES ASSOCIATED TO THE DEPT. OF POMOLOGY & POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGYPCP –151: Growth and Development of Horticultural Crops (1+1)
Growth and development-definitions, components, photosynthetic productivity, Canopy photosynthesis and productivity, leaf area index (LAI) - optimum LAI in horticultural crops, canopy development; different stages of growth, growth curves, Crop development and dynamics (Case studies of annual / perennial horticultural crops). Growth analysis in horticultural crops. Plant bio-regulators- auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene inhibitors and retardants, basic functions, biosynthesis, role in crop growth and development' propagation, flowering, fruit setting, fruit thinning, fruit development, fruit drop, and fruit ripening. Flowering-factors affecting flowering, physiology of flowering, photoperiodism-long day, short day and day neutral plants, vernalisation and its application in horticulture, pruning and training physiological basis of training and pruning-source and sink relationship, translocation of assimilates. Physiology of seed development and maturation, seed dormancy and bud dormancy, Causes and breaking methods in horticultural crops. Physiology of fruit growth and development, fruit setting, factors affecting fruit set and development, of ripening of fruits-climatic and non-climacteric fruits. Physiology of fruits under post-harvest Storage.Practical
Estimation of photosynthetic potential of horticultural crops, Leaf area index, growth analysis parameters including harvest index, Bioassay of plant hormones, identification of synthetic plant hormones and growth retardants, Preparation of hormonal solution and induction of rooting in cuttings, Ripening of fruits and control of flower and fruit drop, Important physiological disorders and their measures in fruits and vegetables, Dormancy, seed germination and breaking seed dormancy with chemicals and growth regulatorsHOR 151: Principles of Horticultural Crops & Plant Protection (1+1)
Scope of horticultural, Soil and climate requirements for fruit, vegetables and floricultural crops; Commercial varieties/hybrids, Improved varieties; Criteria for site selection, Layout and planting methods; Nursery raising; Sowing and planting times and methods, Seed rate and Seed treatment for vegetable crops; Macro and micro propagation methods; Plant growing structures; Pruning and training; Crop coefficients; Water requirements and critical stages , Fertilizer application, Fertigation; Irrigation methods; Harvesting, grading and packaging, post-harvest practices; Garden tools, management of orchard; Extraction and storage of vegetable seeds; Major pests and their management in horticulture crops; Major diseases and their management in horticulture crops.Practical
Judging maturity time for harvesting crop; Study of seed viability and germination test; Identification and description of important fruits, flowers and vegetable crops; Study of different garden tools; Preparation of nursery bed; Practices of pruning and training in some important fruit crops; Visit to commercial green house; Cultural operations for vegetable crops (sowing, fertilizer application, mulching, irrigation and weed control); Seed extraction techniques; Identification of important pests and their control; Identification of important diseases and their control.PCP 351: Processing of Horticultural Crops (1+2)
Importance and scope of fruit and vegetable preservation industry in India, food pipe line, losses in post-harvest operations, unit operations in food processing. Principles and guidelines for the location of processing units. Principles and methods of preservation by heat - pasteurization, canning, bottling. Methods of preparation of juices, squashes, syrups, cordials and fermented beverages. Jam, jelly and marmalade. Preservation by sugar and chemicals, candies, crystallized fruits, preserves chemical preservatives, preservation with salt and vinegar, pickling, chutneys and sauces, tomato and mushrooms, freezing preservation. Processing of plantation crops, spoilage in processed foods, quality control of processed products, Govt. policy on import and export of processed fruits. Food laws.Practical
Equipments used in food processing units. Physico-chemical analysis of fruits and vegetables. Canning of fruits and vegetables, preparation of squash, RTS, cordial, syrup, jam, jelly, marmalade, candies, preserves, chutneys, sauces, pickles (hot and sweet). Dehydration of fruits and vegetables – tomato product dehydration, refrigeration and freezing, cut out analysis of processed foods. Processing of plantation crops. Visit to processing units.ELC 352: Food Safety and Standards (2+1)
Food Safety – Definition, Importance, Scope and Factors affecting Food Safety. Hazards and Risks.Types of hazards - Biological, Chemical, Physical hazards. Management of hazards – Need, control of parameters. Temperature control. Food storage. Product design. Hygiene and Sanitation in Food Service Establishments- Introduction. Sources of contamination and their control. Waste Disposal. Pest and Rodent Control. Personnel Hygiene, Food Safety Measures. Food Safety Management Tools- Basic concepts. PRPs, GHPs, GMPs, SSOPs etc. HACCP. ISO series. TQM- concept and need for quality, components of TQM, Kaizen. Risk Analysis. Accreditation and Auditing, Water Analysis, Surface Sanitation and Personal Hygiene. Food laws and Standards-Indian Food Regulatory Regime, FSSA. Global Scenario CAC. Other laws and standards related to food, Recentconcerns- New and Emerging Pathogens. Packaging, Product labeling and Nutritional labeling. Genetically modified foods\transgenics, Organic foods, Newer approaches to food safety. Recent Outbreaks. Indian and International Standards for food products. Practical
Water quality analysis physico-chemical and microbiological. Preparation of different types of media. Microbiological Examination of different food samples. Assessment of surface sanitation by swab/rinse method. Assessment of personal hygiene. Biochemical tests for identification of bacteria. Scheme for the detection of food borne pathogens. Preparation of plans for Implementation of FSMS – HACCP, ISO: 22000.
M.Sc. (Hort.) in Post-Harvest ManagementCourse to be offered for M.Sc. (Horticulture) in Post-Harvest Management
|Sl No||Course Number||Course Title||Credit Hour||Offering Semester||Associated Department|
|1||PHM 501*||Post-harvest Management of Horticultural Produce||2+1||1st||--|
|2||PHM 502*||Post-harvest Physiology and Biochemical of Perishables||2+1||2nd||--|
|3||PHM 503*||Storage and Packaging of Fresh Horticultural Produce||1+1||1st||--|
|4||PHM 504*||Storage and Packaging of Processed Horticultural Produce||1+1||2nd||--|
|5||PHM 505*||Principles and Methods of Fruits and Vegetable Preservation||2+1||1st||--|
|6||PHM 506||Laboratory techniques in Post-harvest Management||1+2||2nd||Biochemistry|
|7||PHM 507||Processing of Horticultural Produce||2+2||3rd||--|
|8||PHM 508||Quality Assurance, Safety and Sensory Evaluation of fresh and Processed Horticultural Produce||2+1||4th||--|
|9||PHM 509||Functional Foods from Horticultural Produce||2+0||3rd||--|
|10||PHM 510||Marketing and Entrepreneurship in Postharvest Horticulture||1+1||4th||Agricultural Economics|
|Total Major Courses||20|
|Common Compulsory Courses||5|
|PHM 591*||Masters’ Seminar||0+1|
|PHM 599||Thesis Research||0+30|
COURSES FOR M.SC. (HORT.) IN POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
|PHM 501*:POST-HARVEST MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE (2+1)|
Block I: (Post harvest Management of Horticultural Produce)
History, Importance and scope of Postharvest technology of horticultural produce. Nature and structure of horticultural produce. Pre and Postharvest losses and their causes.Unit II
Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Regulation of ripening by use of chemicals and growth regulators. Control of sprouting, rooting and discoloration in vegetables.Unit III
Maturity indices for harvest. Harvesting and harvesting tools. Curing in roots in roots and tubers. Pre-package Operation: Precooling, washing, sorting, grading of horticultural perishables for local markets and export. Postharvest handling of spices, plantation crops, medicinal and aromatic plants. Equipment’s for washing, sizing, grading.Unit IV
Pre and Postharvest treatments for extending storage life/ vase life. VHT, irradiation treatment, skin coating, degreening, etc. Pre-packaging, Packaging techniques for local market and export. Standards and specifications for fresh produce.Unit V:
Postharvest handling system for horticulture crops of regional importance. Principles of transport, modes of transportation, types of vehicles and transit requirements for different horticultural produce. Marketing: Factors influencing marketing of perishable crops, marketing systems and organization.
Study of maturity indices for harvest of fruits, vegetables, spices and plantation crops;Protective skin coating with wax emulsion and pre and Postharvest treatment with fungicides, chemicals and growth regulators to extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables;Pre-packaging of perishables;Extension of vase life of cut flowers by use of chemicals and growth regulators;Control of sprouting of potato and onion by using growth regulators;Study of modern harvesting, sorting and grading equipment’s;Study of effect of pre-cooling on shelf-life and quality of fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers;Visit to packaging centres;Visit to local markets, cooperative organizations, and super markets dealing with marketing of Perishables.
PHM 502*: POSTHARVEST PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF PERISHABLES (2+1)
Block I: (Biochemistry of perishables)
Unit I:Introduction, biochemical structure and composition of fruits, vegetables and ornamentals.
Biochemical changes during development and ripening. Structural Deterioration of the Produce-cell wall degradation, change in membrane lipid. Biosynthesis of ethylene and its regulation. Ethylene action and ripening processes, its perception-action and regulation.Block II (Post-harvest physiology of perishables)
Unit I:Determining maturity and maturity indices. Ripening processes: events of ripening and factors affecting them.
Unit II: Physiology of preharvest and postharvest; factors affecting shelf-life and quality of fruits, vegetables and ornamentals.
Respiration: respiratory climacteric, its significance. Transpiration and water stress during postharvest. Postharvest oxidative stress: active oxygen species, AOS generation, physiological effects on horticultural commodity, control of oxidative injury.
Determination of physical parameters like specific gravity, fruit firmness, etc.;Determination of physiological loss in weight; Determination of chemical constituents like sugar, starch, pigments, Vitamin C, Acidity during maturation and ripening in fruits/ vegetables; Estimation of ethylene evolved from ripening fruits; Delay/ Hastening of ripening by ethylene treatments; Determination of firmness, TSS, moisture, Titratable acid, sugar, protein, starch, fats, chlorophyll, carotene, anthocyanin, phenols and tannins; Measurement of respiration and ethylene evaluation.
|PHM 503*:STORAGE AND PACKAGING OF FRESH HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE(1+1)|
Block 1: Storage Systems
Importance of storage of horticultural produce, present status and future scope. Principles and methods of storage – field storage structures and designs for bulk storage of horticultural produce- onion and potato, etc. Evaporative cool chambers. Physiological changes during storage.
Refrigerated storage – principles of refrigeration, types of refrigerants, refrigeration equipment’s. Cold storage rooms – Calculation of refrigeration load. Storage requirements of different fruits, vegetables, flowers. Storage disorder symptoms and control.
Controlled or modified atmosphere (CA/MA) storage – principles, uses, structures and equipment’s, methods and requirements. Effect of CA storage on the physiology of stored produce. Hypobaric storage principle, uses, and requirements. Storage disorders
Block 2 :(Packaging)
Importance of packaging of fresh and processed horticultural produce, present status and future scope. Gaps in packaging concepts. Packaging requirements of fresh horticultural produce. Packaging patterns and methods. Food packaging systems: Different forms of packaging such as rigid, semi-rigid, flexible forms. Traditional, improved and specialized packages. Paper based packages: corrugated fibre board boxes – raw material and types of boxes. Flexible packaging materials – types and their properties. Consumer and intermediate flexible bulk containers. Testing of flexible packaging material. Barrier properties of packaging materials.Unit 2:
New technology in packaging – stretch wrapping system, vacuum packaging, gas packaging, controlled atmosphere (active and intelligent) packaging, vibra packaging, skin packaging, shrink packaging, form fill-seal packaging, Packaging machines. Quality control and safety aspects of packaging materials.
Study of special storage structures for bulk storage of onion/ potato, etc.;Study of storage behaviour of different fruits and vegetables in zero energy cool chamber;Determination of refrigeration requirements (capacity) for given quantity of fruits and vegetables;Study of storage behaviour of different fruits and vegetables in cold room;Study of chilling injury and storage disorders;Study of shelf-life of fruits and vegetables in modified atmosphere packaging. Visit to special storage structures, cold storage units. Study of types of packaging materials, types of plastic films and their properties;Determination of water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and gas transmission rate (GTR) of packaging material;Applications of packaging material for fresh fruits and vegetables, beverages, spice products;Determination of shelf-life of fresh products in different types of packages;Study of packaging machines – vacuum packaging machine, shrink wrapping machine, double steamer, etc. Visit to packaging unit.
|PHM 504: PACKAGING AND STORAGE OF PROCESSED HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE (1+1)|
Block 1 :(Packaging principles and functions)
Functions of packaging; Type of packaging materials; Selection of packaging material for different foods; Selective properties of packaging film; Methods of packaging and packaging equipment.
Mechanical strength of different packaging materials; Printing of packages; Barcodes and other marking; Interactions between packaging material and foods; Environmental and cost consideration in selecting packaging materials.Unit III:
Manufacture of packaging materials; Potential of biocomposite materials for food packaging; Packaging regulations; Packaging and food preservation; Disposal of packaging materials.Unit IV:
Metal cans: types, fabrication, lacquering and tin quality. Double seaming technology – defects and causes. Glass containers – types; testing quality – thermal shock resistance, thermal shock breakage, impact breakage.Unit V:
Testing of packaging; Rigid and semi rigid containers; Flexible containers; Sealing equipment’s Labelling; Aseptic and shrink packaging; Secondary and transport packaging. Different packaging systems for dehydrated foods, frozen foods, dairy foods, fresh fruits and vegetables.
Practical:Testing of packaging material: compression strength/drop test/thermal shock test/seam evaluation/ seam defects; Determination of shelf-life of processed products in different types of packages;Study of packaging machines – vacuum packaging machine, shrink wrapping machine, double steamer, etc.;Visit to packaging units.
|PHM 505*: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLE PRESERVATION(2+1)|
Block I (Principles and Methods of Fruit and Vegetable Processing)
Introduction, Historical development in food processing, type of food and causes for food spoilage. Basic principles of fruits and vegetables processingUnit II:
Thermal processing, pH classification of foods, heat resistance of microorganism; Heat resistance of enzymes in foods, Spoilage of thermal processed food; Containers – canning, rigid tin plates and cans, aluminium cans, glass containers – types; flexible packaging materials, Composite can, specification, corrosion of cans, heat penetration into containers and methods for determination of process time.Unit III:
Effect of low temperature on fresh commodities and prepared product. Freezing preservation, freezing points of foods, slow and quick freezing, Cryogenic freezing and frozen food storage. Drying and dehydration, sun drying solar dehydration, mechanical drying types of driers, osmotic dehydration.Unit IV:
Food fermentation – alcoholic, acetic and lactic fermentation. Pickling and curing; Effect of salt on food preservation, types of salt cured products. Traditional and new products; chemical preservation, SO2, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, antioxidants and antibiotics, newer preservatives. Preservation by controlling water activity – high sugar products, intermediate moisture food, food concentration.Unit V:
Food irradiation, principles, types and sources of radiation, mode of action of ionizing radiation; radiation effect on food constituents and regulation.
List and cost of equipment, utensils, and additives required for small scale processing industry;Chemical analysis for nutritive value of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables;Preparation and preservation of fruit based beverages and blended products from fruits and vegetables;Evaluation of pectin grade; preparation and quality evaluation of fruit jam;Preparation of papain;Blanching and its effects on enzyme;Preparation of dehydrated vegetables;Study of different types of spoilages in fresh as well as processed horticulturalproduce;Study of biochemical changes and enzymes associated with spoilage; Sensory evaluation of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables;Visit to processing units.
|PHM 506: LABORATORY TECHNIQUES IN POSTHARVEST HORTICULTURE (1+2)|
Block 1 (Laboratory Techniques in Postharvest Management)
Rheological techniques and instrumentation used in food industry. Analysis of food additives like food colour, antioxidants, emulsifier, etc.Unit II:
Analysis of pesticide residues, metallic contaminants, afflation. Analysis of food flavours.
Quality analysis of processed fruits and vegetables, coffee, tea and spices. Identification and enumeration of microbial contaminants.Unit IV:
Principles of chromatography (GC, GCMS, HPLC, LCMS), spectrophotometry (Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, ICAP spectrophotometer), ICP-MS, ICPOES, NMR, ESR, amino acid analyser, flame photometry, electrophoresis.Unit V:
Colour measurement in foods, IRGA, Radio-isotopic techniques. Non-destructive quality evaluation (NDQE) - E-nose, E-tongue, machine vision. Electrophoresis...
Sample preparation for quality analysis. Energy calculation, sample calculations; Texture analysis, Rheology of different foods;Instrumental colour analysis;Sensory evaluation and microbiological examinations of fresh and processed products;Estimation of tannin/ phytic acid by spectrometric method;Moisture and fat analysis by NIR spectroscopy;Separation and identification of sugars in fruit juices;Separation and identification of carotenoids by column chromatography;Estimation of respiration in fruits and vegetables;Flavour profile in essential oils using GC;Identification and determination of organic acids by HPLC;Capsaicin content and Scoville Heat Units in chillies;• Heavy metal analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry;Residue analysis.Study on effect of different canopy types on production and quality of fruits.
|PHM 507*: PROCESSING OF HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE (2+2)|
Block 1 (Importance and Thermal processes)
Processing unit- layout and establishment, processing tools. Quality requirements of raw materials for processing, preparation of raw material, primary processing: grading, sorting, cleaning, washing, peeling, slicing and blanching; minimal processing.Unit II:
Preparation of various processed products from fruits and vegetables, flowers; role of sugar and pectin in processed products. Freezing of fruits and vegetables. Containers, equipment and technologies in canning.Unit III:
Juice extractions, clarification and preservation, recent advances in juice processing technology, application of membrane technology in processing of juices, preparation of fruit beverages and juice concentrate. Sensory evaluation.Block 2 (Processing equipment and enzyme kinetics)
Dehydration of fruits and vegetables using various drying technologies and equipment, solar drying and dehydration, packaging technique for processed products.Unit II:
Quality assurance and storage system for processed products. Nutritive value of raw and processed products, plant sanitation and waste disposal. Types of horticultural and vegetables wastes and their uses, utilization of by- products from fruits and vegetables processing industries.
andling of harvesting equipment’s;Determination of physical and thermal properties of horticultural commodities;Thermal process calculations;Particle size analysis, Storage structure design;Numerical problems in freezing, drying, conveying and calculations pertaining to texture and Rheology;Handling of heating equipment, pulper, juice extractor, deaerator, juice filters;Processing industries waste treatment;Working of a canning unit;Visit to commercial processing units and storage units.
|PHM 508: QUALITY ASSURANCE, SAFETY AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF FRESH AND PROCESSED HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE (2+1)|
Block I (Quality Assurance)
Concept of quality: Quality attributes- physical, chemical, nutritional, microbial, and sensory; their measurement and evaluation. Concepts of quality management: Objectives, importance and functions of quality control; Quality management systems in India; Sampling procedures and plans.Unit II:
Food laws and regulations in India, Quality management standards, ISO,BIS, PFA, AGMARK and QMS standards, quality system components and their requirements.Block II (Safety)
Food safety and standards act (FSSA, 2006); Strategies for compliance with international agri- Food standards; Export specification and guidelines by APEDA. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), design and implementation of an HACCP system, steps in the risk management process. Traceability in food supply chains.Unit II:
Organic Certification, GAP, GMP, TQM. Indian and International quality systems and standard like, Codex Alimentarius, ISO, etc.Consumer perception of safety; Ethics in food safety.Block III (Sensory Evaluation) Unit I:
Introduction to sensory analysis; general testing conditions, Requirements of sensory laboratory; organizing sensory evaluation programme. Selection of sensory panellists; Factors influencing sensory measurements; Sensory quality parameters -Size and shape, texture, aroma, taste, colour and gloss; Detection, threshold and dilution tests. Different tests for sensory evaluation– discrimination, descriptive, affective; Flavour profile and tests; Ranking tests.Unit II:
Methods of sensory evaluation of different food products. Designing of experiments. Handling and interpretation of Data. Role of sensory evaluation in product optimization. Relationship between objective and subjective methods. Sensory analysis for consumer evaluation.Computer-aided sensory evaluation of food and beverage.
Analysis for TSS, pH, acidity, sugars, pectic substances, minerals, vitamin C, carotene, alcohol, benzoic acid and SO2 contents, yeast and microbial examination in processed products; Demonstration of measurement of vacuum/ pressure, head space, filled weight, drained weight, cut-out analysis and chemical additives; Moisture content, rehydration ratio and enzymatic/ non-enzymatic browning in dehydrated products; Analysis of spices for quality parameters. Evaluation of processed products according to FSSAI specification; Selection and training of sensory panel; Identification of basic taste, odour, texture and colour; Detection and threshold tests; Ranking tests for taste, aroma, colour and texture; Sensory evaluation of various horticultural processed products using different scales, score cards and tests, Hedonic testing; Estimation of colour and texture; optimising a product by sensory analysis; Studying relationship between objective and subjective methods.
|PHM 509: FUNCTIONAL FOODS FROM HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE(2+0)|
Block I (Functional food and importance)
Functional foods- Introduction, definition, history; Importance, relevance and need of functional foods. Sources and classification of functional foods. Importance of horticultural produce as functional foods. Functional foods derived from fruits, vegetables, medicinal and aromatics.Unit II:
Functional ingredients and their properties. Therapeutic potential and effects of horticultural produce; Herbs, herbal teas, oils, etc. in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Effect of preservation and processing on functional properties of horticulture produce.Block II (Bioactive Compounds)
Introduction, Classes of bioactive compounds present in fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols: Phenolic acid, Stilbenes, Flavonoids, Lignin, Coumarin, Tannin, etc.–their chemistry, source, bioavailability, interaction in food systems; changes during storage and processing. Alkaloids; Nitrogen Containing Compounds; Sulphur compounds; phytosterols; carotenoids; dietary fibres, etc.–their chemistry, source, bioavailability, interaction in food systems; changes during storage and processing.Unit II:
Mechanism of neuroprotection by bioactive compounds. Techniques of Extraction, purification and concentration of bioactive compounds from fruits and vegetables. Bioactive compound and health benefits Incorporation of bioactive compounds in foods.Block III (Neutraceuticals)
Nutraceuticals- Introduction, classification of nutraceuticals, dietary supplements, fortified foods, functional foods and phytonutraceuticals. Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in nutraceutical industry. Health benefits of phyto-neutraceuticals.
|PHM 510: MARKETING AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN POSTHARVEST HORTICULTURE (1+1)|
Entrepreneurship – Concept, need for entrepreneurship – Types of entrepreneurs -entrepreneurial opportunities in horticultural processing sector-Government schemes and incentives for promotion of entrepreneurship in processing sector.Unit II:
Writing Business Plan- Business Plan Format for Small and micro Enterprises-Generation, incubation and commercialization of business ideas – Environment scanning and opportunity identification.Unit III:
Steps in establishment of MSME Enterprise – Planning of an enterprise – Formulation and project report-Meaning – Importance Components and preparation.-Government Formalities and Procedures.Unit IV:
Marketing potential of processed products at domestic and international level-Marketing management-Marketing functions, market information and market research-Problems in marketing of processed products. Demand and supply analysis of important processed products- Marketing channels – Marketing strategy (product strategy and pricing strategy)- Supply chain management – Meaning, importance, advantages, supply chain management of important processed productsUnit V:
Institutional support to Entrepreneurship Role of Directorate of Industries, District Industries, Centres (DICs), Industrial Development Corporation (IDC), State Financial corporation (SFCs), Commercial banks Small Scale Industries Development Corporations (SSIDCs), Khadi and village Industries Commission (KVIC), National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).
Consumer Behaviour towards Processed Foods;An Empirical Test-Carrying out the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of successful Enterprises;Constraints in setting up of horticulture-based industries;Field visits to study any one of the Local Financial Institutions to study the MSME Policies;Preparation of business plan and proposal writing-Project evaluation techniques; Discounted and undiscounted techniques;Case studies of successful entrepreneurs.
Ph.D. (Hort.) in Post-Harvest ManagementCourse to be offered for Ph. D. (Horticulture) in Post-Harvest Management
|Sl No||Course Number||Course Title||Credit Hour||Offered Semester||Associated Department|
|1||PHM 601**||Ripening and Senescence of Fruits and Vegetables||1+1||1st||--|
|2||PHM 602||Recent Trends in Food Preservation||1+1||2nd||--|
|3||PHM 603**||Management and Utilization of Horticultural Processing Waste||3+0||1st||--|
|4||PHM 604**||Supply Chain Management of Perishables||2+0||2nd||Agri. Eco|
|5||PHM 605||Export Oriented Horticultural||1+0||3rd||Agri. Eco|
|6||PHM 606||Food Additives||1+1||4th||--|
|7||PHM 607||Advances in Processing of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants||3+0||3rd||PCP|
|8||PHM 608||Value Addition in Ornamental Crops||1+1||4th||FMAP|
|Total Major Courses||12|
|PHM 691||Seminar Ⅰ||0+1|
|PHM 692||Seminar Ⅱ||0+1|
|PHM 699||Thesis Research||0+75|
|PHM 601*: RIPENING AND SENESCENCE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES II (1+1)|
Environmental factors influencing senescence, ripening and post-harvest life of fruits, flowers and vegetables.Unit II:
Molecular mechanism of senescence and ageing. Physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of senescence and fruit ripening Senescence associated genes and gene products.Unit III:
Functional and ultra-structural changes in chloroplast membranes, mitochondria and cell wall during senescence and ripening.Unit IV:
Ethylene biosynthesis, perception and molecular mechanism of action; regulatory role of ethylene in senescence and ripening, biotechnological approaches to manipulate ethylene biosynthesis and action.Unit V:
Alternate post-harvest methodology and quality attributes. Scope for genetic modification of post-harvest life on flowers and fruits. Uses of GM crops and ecological risk assessment.
Physiological and biochemical changes during senescence and ripening; Estimation of ethylene during senescence and ripening; Determination of Reactive Oxygen Species and scavenging enzymes; Measurement of dark and alternate respiration rates during senescence and ripening; Estimation of ripening related enzyme activity, celluloses, pectin methyl esterase, polygalacturonase, etc.
|PHM-602: RECENT TRENDS IN FOOD PRESERVATION (1+1)|
Block I: Hurdle technology and recent advances
Hurdle technology, Principles of Hurdle Technology, Minimally Processed foods, Intermediate moisture foods, role of water activity in food preservation, Chemicals and biochemical used in Food Preservation- Natural food preservatives, bacteriocins.Unit II:
Thermal and Non-thermal technology, Advanced Thermal and Nonthermal Technology- Pulsed electric field, microbial inactivation, application, present status and future scope. Fundamentals and Applications of High Pressure Processing to Foods, Advances in Use of High Pressure to Processing and Preservation of Plant Foods, Commercial High-Pressure Equipment. Food Irradiation – an Emerging Technology.Unit III:
Recent food preservation techniques, Ultraviolet Light and Food Preservation; Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound; Use of oscillating Magnetic Fields. No thermal Technologies in Combination with Other Preservation Factors. Preservation by osmic heating-Advances in Ohmic Heating and Moderate Electric Field (MEF) Processing; Radiofrequency Heating in Food Processing; Current State of Microwave Applications to Food Processing. Supercritical Fluid Extraction: An Alternative to Isolating bioactive compounds.Block II: Enzyme applications and quality parameters
Enzyme and their applications. Enzyme and their application in food processing, Principles of food biotechnology, fermentation and enzyme mediated food processing, production of high value products such as Single Cell Protein, nutritional additives, pigments and flavours.Unit II: Quality specifications and standards. Quality parameters and specifications, Food laws and standards, HACCP, FSSAI amendments, ISO, FDA.
Determination of thermal resistance of food spoilage microorganisms; Determination of thermal death curve; Thermal process calculations; Demonstration of hurdle approaches in fruits and vegetables preservation. Enumerate the hurdle approaches in food processing; Detection of microbes in each hurdle. Study of shelf life of fresh cut produce in each hurdle; Study of fresh cut produce packing, storage temperature and microbial interaction; Study of thermal and non-thermal application in food preservation; Study of moisture content in food their water activity; Demonstration of microwave technology in fresh produce preservation and drying; Determination of dry matter content in food using microwave technology; Study the use of enzymes in different fruit juice extraction, quantification, time –Pectinase/cellulose and others; Incubation techniques of enzymes using fermenter for juice extractions; Group discussions on current market potential of hurdle technology – Pros and cons; Visit to advanced food processing unit; Visit to SCFE unit.
|PHM-603*: MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF HORTICULTURAL PROCESSING WASTE (3+0)|
Block I: Waste treatment and disposal methods
Introduction: Waste and its consequences in pollution and global warming. Need for waste management. Waste and its classifications and characterization-sampling methods, analysis and standards for waste discharge. Importance of point and nonpoint sources of wastes, Solid and liquid wastes.Unit II:
Waste treatment processes: BOD, COD, DO, TS VS, ash, and different unit operations in waste treatment processes.
Waste disposal methods: Nature of waste from processing industry and their present disposal methods. Waste segregation, Primary secondary and tertiary waste treatment processes, Conventional and non-conventional waste treatment processes, aerobic and anaerobic waste treatment processes.Block II: Valorisation of wastes
Recovery of useful products: Valorization of wastes: Recovery of useful products and by-products from waste, viz., organic acids, bioethanol, biobutanol, colour, essence, pectin, oils, etc. animal feed and single cell protein.Unit II:
Treatment of solid and liquid waste: Technology of treatment of solid and liquid wastes from fruit and vegetable industries. Immobilized bioreactor in waste treatment. Anaerobic bioreactor and energy production. Circular economics and waste management.
|PHM 604*: SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF PERISHABLES II (2+0)|
Introduction. Role of supply chain and logistics, Challenges faced in supply chain, Input suppliers, Farm output: Market intermediaries, Processors, Retailers.Unit II:
Intrinsic Issues: Perishability, Quality, Grading, Risk: Sources of risk, Classification of Agricultural risk- Production risk, Market and Price risk. Mnagement of risk.Unit III:
Support system in supply chain- Infrastructure: definition, role. Transport network, Cold storage, organised market, etc. Information technology-Enterprise resource planning, E-Choupal, Mobile Technology, web portal on agri-market information.Unit IV:
Support system in supply chain- Financial Systems: Introduction, Role and Relevance, Problems in Synchronization, Role of Technology; Credit Structure in India -Reserve Bank of India (RBI), NABARD; Commodity Markets, Corporate in Agribusiness.Unit V:
Support system in supply chain- Role of Government: Introduction; Agencies- As a Direct Player. Measures for improving supply chain and its effectiveness, involvement of organized retailers.
Present scenario of supply chain management; Case Study: Supply chain management of fruits and vegetables in Safal daily fresh/APMC/ Reliance Fresh/ Amul/ D-Mart/ Spencer Retail/ Vipani/ Farmers Bazars/ Farm Fresh/ ApniMandi, etc. based on regional importance.
|PHM-605: EXPORT ORIENTED HORTICULTURE (1+0)|
Block 1: Product specifications and sanitary measures
Introduction: India’s position and potentiality in world trade; export promotion zones in India. Export and import policy, problem in export of fresh horticultural produce, export infrastructure (sea port, airport, bulk storage facilities, irradiation, Vapour Heat Treatment, quarantine, transportation, etc.,).quarantine need, major export destination and competing nations for selected crops.Unit II:
Produce specifications and standards: Scope, produce specifications, quality and safety standards for export of fruits, viz., mango, grape, litchi, pomegranate, walnut, cashewnut, etc., vegetables, viz., onion, chilli, okra, bitter gourd, gherkin, etc., flowers, viz., rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, gerbera, specialty flowers, etc., cut green and foliage plants.Unit III:
Export oriented sanitary measures: Processed and value-added products, Postharvest management for export including packaging and cool chain; HACCP, Codex alimentarius, ISO certification; APEDA and its role in export, WTO and its implications, sanitary and phytosanitary measures. Codex norms and GAP and SOP for export of major horticultural crops from India.Block 2: Export related policies
Export implications: Export of seed and planting material; implications of PBR, treatments of horticultural produce, MRL for export of horticultural produce.Unit III:
Export oriented regulatory issues: Agriculture Export Policy, Export procedure; EXIM Policy, APMC act, Auction Centres, Regulatory issues of Ministry of Commerce, GoI.
|PHM 606: FOOD ADDITIVES (1+1)|
Importance of food additives in processing and preservation of horticultural produce by food additives. Food additives-definitions, classification, international numbering systems and functions.Unit II:
Principles and methods of preservation by use of sugar, salt, spices, essential oils, vinegar, mode of action of chemical preservatives.Unit III:
Antioxidants, colours and flavours (synthetic and natural), emulsifiers, sequester ants, humectants, hydrocolloids, sweeteners, acidulates, buffering salts, anticaking agents, clarifying agents, etc. – uses in horticulture foods and functions in formulations.Unit IV:
Flavour technology: types of flavours, flavour generated during processing – reaction flavours, flavour composites, stability of flavours during food processing, flavour emulsion, essential oils and oleoresins, etc.Unit V:
Uses of enzymes in extraction of juices. Pectic substances and their role as jellifying agents. Protein, starches and lipids as functional ingredients, functional properties and applications in horticultural food. Safety and toxicological evaluation of food additives: GRAS-tolerance levels and toxic levels in foods, LD50 value.
Extraction of fruit and vegetable juices using enzymes clarification; Role of additives and preservatives in RTS, cordial, squash, concentrate, syrup, jam, jelly, marmalade, ketchup, sauce, preserves, chutneys, pickles, candies, crystallized products; Estimation of benzoic acid, sulphur-di-oxide; Estimation of pectin’s.
|PHM-607: ADVANCES IN PROCESSING OF PLANTATION, SPICES, MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS (3+0)|
Block I:Handling and utilization of plantation, spice, medicinal and aromatic plants
Introduction: Commercial uses of spices and plantation crops. Introduction to processing and products in plantation and spice crops. Significance of on farm processing and quality of finished products. Processing of major spices, extraction of oleoresin and essential oils. Processing of produce from plantation and spice crops.Unit II:
By product utilization: By product utilization in plantation crops for coir production, mushroom culture, cocopeat, bee keeping, toddy tapping, Oil cake production and utilization, vermi-composting, Fuel wood and timber wood from perennial spices and plantation crops (crops, viz., coconut, areca nut, cashew nut, oil palm, palmyrah, date palm, cocoa, tea, coffee, rubber, etc. cardamom, black pepper, ginger, turmeric, chilli and paprika, vanilla, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, allspice, coriander, fenugreek, curry leaf, etc.).Unit III:
Value addition of medicinal and aromatic plants: Value addition on aromatic oils and medicinal herbs. Principles and practices of different types of extraction – distillation, solvent extraction, effleurage, soxhlet, supercritical fluid extraction, phytonics, counter current extraction. Commercial uses of essential oils, aroma therapy. Commercial utilization of spent material.Block II: Essential oil utilization and their storage
Quality determination of essential oils: Qualitative determination of essential oils. Quality analysis and characterization through chromatographs.Unit II:
Storage of essential oils: Storage of essential oils. Utilization of spent material of medicinal and aromatic crops in manufacture of agarabatti, organic manures and other useful products. Detoxification of waste materials. Role of spent material in bio-control of diseases and pest in organic farming. Role of micro-organisms in conversion of waste in to useful products.
|PHM 608: VALUE ADDITION IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS (1+1)|
Block I: Value addition of flowers
Introduction: Importance, opportunities and prospects of value addition in floriculture; national and global scenario; production and exports, supply chain management.Unit II:
Value addition of flower crops: Dry flower making including pot pourries, their uses and trade; extraction technology, uses, sources and trade in essential oils; aroma therapy; pigment and natural dyes extraction technology, sources, uses and trade.Unit III:
Neutraceuticals from petals: Pharmaceutical and neutraceutical compounds from flower crops; petal embedded handmade paper making and uses, preparation of products like gulkand, rose water, gulroghan, attar, pankhuri.Block II: Floral arrangements and women empowerment
Floral arrangements: Floral craft including bouquets, garlands, flower arrangements, etc. tinting (artificial colouring) of flower crops;Unit II: Women empowerment: Women empowerment through value added products making.
Dry flower making including pot pourries; extraction technology, uses, sourcesand trade in essential oils; Pigment and natural dyes extraction technology; Pharmaceutical and neutraceutical compounds from flower crops; Preparation of products like gulkand, rose water, gulroghan, attar, pankhuri; Petal embedded handmade paper making; Floral craft including bouquets, garlands, flower arrangements, etc.; Tinting (artificial colouring) of flower crops.
COURSES TO BE OFFERED FOR M.SC. (HORTICULTURE) IN FRUIT SCIENCE
|Sl No||Course Number||Course Title||Credit Hour||Offering Semester||Associated Department|
|1||FSC 501*||Tropical Fruit Production||2+1||1|
|2||FSC 502*||Sub-Tropical and Temperate Fruit Production||2+1||1|
|3||FSC 503*||Propagation and Nursery Management of Fruit Crops||2+1||1||GPB|
|4||FSC 504*||Breeding of Fruit Crops||2+1||2|
|5||FSC 505||Systematics of Fruit Crops||2+1||2|
|6||FSC 506||Canopy Management in Fruit Crops||1+1||3|
|7||FSC 507||Growth and Development of Fruit Crops||2+1||3|
|8||FSC 508||Nutrition of Fruit Crops||2+1||3||SSAC|
|9||FSC 509||Biotechnology of Fruit Crops||2+1||4||GPB|
|10||FSC 510||Organic Fruit Culture||2+1||4|
|11||FSC 511||Export Oriented Fruit Production||2+1||4|
|12||FSC 512||Climate Change and Fruit Crops||1+0||2|
|13||FSC 513||Minor Fruit Production||2+1||2|
|Total Major Courses||20|
|Common Compulsory Courses||5|
|FSC 591*||Masters’ Seminar||0+1|
|FSC 599||Thesis Research||0+30|
COURSES FOR M.SC. (HORT.) IN FRUIT SCIENCE
FSC 501*: TROPICAL FRUIT PRODUCTION (2+1)Theory:
Block I : (Introduction)
Importance and Background: Importance, origin and distribution, major species, rootstocks and commercial varieties of regional, national and international importance, eco-physiological requirements.
Block II (Agro-techniques)Unit I:
Propagation, Planting and Orchard Floor Management: Asexual and sexual methods of propagation, planting systems and planting densities, training and pruning methods, rejuvenation, intercropping, nutrient management, water management, fertigation, use of bio-fertilizers, role of bio-regulators, abiotic factors limiting fruit production.
Block III (Crop Management)Unit I:
Flowering, Fruit-Set and Harvesting: Physiology of flowering, pollination management, fruit set and development, physiological disorders – causes and remedies, crop regulation, quality improvement by management practices; maturity indices, harvesting, grading, packing, storage and ripening techniques; insect and disease management.Crops:
Mango, Banana, Guava, Pineapple, Papaya, Avocado, Jackfruit, Annonas, Aonla, Ber, Sapotaetc
Distinguished features of tropical fruit species, cultivars and rootstocks (2), Demonstration of planting systems, training and pruning (3), Hands on practices on pollination and crop regulation (2), Leaf sampling and nutrient analysis (3), Physiological disorders-malady diagnosis (1), Physico-chemical analysis of fruit quality attributes (3), Field/ Exposure visits to tropical orchards (1);Project preparation for establishing commercial orchards (1).
FSC 502*: SUB-TROPICAL AND TEMPERATE FRUIT PRODUCTION (2+1)Theory
Block IUnit I: (Introduction)
Importance and Background: Origin, distribution and importance, major species, rootstocks and commercial varieties of regional, national and international importance, eco-physiological requirements.
Block IIUnit I (Agro-techniques)
Propagation, Planting and Orchard Floor Management: Propagation, planting systems and densities, training and pruning, rejuvenation and replanting, intercropping, nutrient management, water management, fertigation, use of bio-fertilizers, role of bio-regulators, abiotic factors limiting fruit production.
Unit I (Crop Management)
Flowering, Fruit-Set and Harvesting: Physiology of flowering, pollination management, fruit set and development, physiological disorders- causes and remedies, crop regulation, quality improvement by management practices; maturity indices, harvesting, grading, packing, storage and ripening techniques; insect and disease management.
Citrus, Grapes, Litchi, Pomegranate, Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Apricot, Cherries, Berries, Kiwifruit, Nuts- Walnut, Almond, Pecan, etc.
Distinguished features of fruit species, cultivars and rootstocks (2);Demonstration of planting systems, training and pruning (3);Hands on practices on pollination and crop regulation (2);Leaf sampling and nutrient analysis (3);Physiological disorders-malady diagnosis (1);Physico-chemical analysis of fruit quality attributes (3), Field/ Exposure visits to subtropical and temperate orchards (1); Project preparation for establishing commercial orchards (1).
FSC 503*: PROPAGATION AND NURSERY MANAGEMENT IN FRUIT CROPS(2+1)
Block I (Introduction)
General Concepts and Phenomena: Introduction, understanding cellular basis for propagation, sexual and asexual propagation, apomixis, polyembryony, chimeras. Factors influencing seed germination of fruit crops, dormancy, hormonal regulation of seed germination and seedling growth. Seed quality, treatment, packing, storage, certification and testing.
Block II (Propagation)
Conventional Asexual Propagation: Cutting– methods, rooting of soft and hardwood cuttings under mist and hotbeds. Use of PGR in propagation, Physiological, anatomical and biochemical aspects of root induction in cuttings. Layering – principle and methods.
Budding and grafting: principles and methods, establishment and management of bud wood bank. Stock, scion and inter stock relationship – graft incompatibility, physiology of rootstock and top working.
Micropropagation: Micro-propagation – principles and concepts, commercial exploitation in horticultural crops. Techniques – in-vitro clonal propagation, direct organogenesis, embryogenesis, micrografting, meristem culture, genetic fidelity testing. Hardening, packaging and transport of micro-propagules
Block III (Nursery)
Management Practices and Regulation: Nursery – types, structures, components, planning and layout. Nursery management practices for healthy propagule production. Nursery Act, nursery accreditation, import and export of seeds and planting material and quarantine.
Hands on practices on rooting of dormant and summer cuttings (3);Studies in rooting of cutting and graft union (1);Hands on practices on various methods of budding and grafting (4);Propagation by layering and stooling (2);Micropropagation- explant preparation, media preparation, culturing – meristemtip culture, axillary bud culture, micro-grafting, hardening (4), Visit to commercial tissue culture laboratories and accredited nurseries (2).
FSC 504*: BREEDING OF FRUIT CROPS (2+1)
Block 1 (Introduction)
Importance, Taxonomy and Genetic Resources: Introduction and importance, origin and distribution, taxonomical status – species and cultivars, cytogenetics, genetic resources.
Block 2 (Reproductive Biology)
Blossom Biology and Breeding Systems: Blossom biology, breeding systems – spontaneous mutations, polyploidy, incompatibility, sterility, parthenocarpy, apomixis, breeding objectives, ideotypes.
Block 3 (Breeding Approaches)
Conventional and Non-Conventional Breeding: Approaches for crop improvement – direct introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploid breeding, rootstock breeding, improvement of quality traits, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses, biotechnological interventions, achievements and future thrusts.
Mango, Banana, Pineapple, Citrus, Grapes, Litchi, Guava, Pomegranate, Papaya, Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Strawberry
Exercises on bearing habit, floral biology (2);Pollen viability and fertility studies (1);Hands on practices in hybridization (3);Raising and handling of hybrid progenies (2);Induction of mutations and polyploidy (2);Evaluation of biometrical traits and quality traits (2);Use of descriptors for germplasm characterization (1), Developing breeding programme for specific traits (2);Visit to research stations working on fruit breeding (1).
FSC 505: SYSTEMATICS OF FRUIT CROPS (2+1)
Block 1 (Bio-systematics)
Unit I: Nomenclature and Classification: Biosystematics – introduction and significance; history of nomenclature of cultivated plants, classification and nomenclature systems; International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants
Block 2 (Botanical Keys and Description)
Identification and Description: Methods of identification and description of cultivated fruit and nut species and their wild relatives features; development of plant keys for systematic identification and classification.
Development of fruit crop descriptors- based upon Bioversity International Descriptors and UPOV/ DUS test guidelines, botanical and pomological description of major cultivars and rootstocks of tropical, subtropical and temperate fruits and nut crops.
Block 3 (Special Topics)
Registration and Modern Systematics: Registration, Use of chemotaxonomy, biochemical and molecular markers in modern systematics.
Exercises on identification and pomological description of various fruit species and cultivars (6); Development of descriptive blanks vis-a-vis UPOV/ DUS test guidelines and Biodiversity International (4); Descriptors for developing fruit species and cultivar descriptive databases (4); Visits to major germplasm centres and field gene banks (2).
FSC 506: CANOPY MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT CROPS (1+1)
Block 1 (Canopy Architecture)
Introduction, Types and Classification: Canopy management – importance and factors affecting canopy development. Canopy types and structures, canopy manipulation for optimum utilization of light and its interception. Spacing and utilization of land area – Canopy classification
Block 2 (Canopy Management)
Physical Manipulation and Growth Regulation: Canopy management through rootstock and scion. Canopy management through plant growth regulators, training and pruning and management practices. Canopy development and management in relation to growth, flowering, fruiting and fruit quality.
Study of different types of canopies (2);Training of plants for different canopy types (2);Canopy development through pruning (2);Understanding bearing behaviour and canopy management in different fruits (3);Use of plant growth regulators (2);Geometry of planting (1);Development of effective canopy with support system (2); Study on effect of different canopy types on production and quality of fruits (2).
FSC 507: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF FRUIT CROPS (2+1)
Block I (Introduction)
Unit I: General Concepts and Principles: Growth and development- definition, parameters of growth and development, growth dynamics and morphogenesis
Block II (Environment and Development)
Climatic Factors, Hormones and Developmental Physiology: Environmental impact on growth and development- effect of light, temperature, photosynthesis and photoperiodism, vernalisation, heat units and thermoperiodism. Assimilate partitioning, influence of water and mineral nutrition in growth and development; concepts of plant hormone and bioregulators, history, biosynthesis and physiological role of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscissic acid, ethylene, growth inhibitors and retardant, brasssinosteroids, other New PGRs. Developmental physiology and biochemistry during dormancy, bud break, juvenility, vegetative to reproductive interphase, flowering, pollination, fertilization and fruit set, fruit drop, fruit growth, ripening and seed development.
Block III (Stress Management)
Strategies for Overcoming Stress: Growth and developmental process during stress – manipulation of growth and development, impact of pruning and training, chemical manipulations and Commercial application of PGRs in fruit crops, molecular and genetic approaches in plant growth and development.
Understanding dormancy mechanisms in fruit crops and seed stratification (2); Techniques of growth analysis (2); Evaluation of photosynthetic efficiency under different environments (2); Exercises on hormone assays (2); Practical on use of growth regulators (2); Understanding ripening phenomenon in fruits (2); Study on impact of physical manipulations on growth and development (2); Study on chemical manipulations on growth and development (1); Understanding stress impact on growth and development (1).
FSC 508: NUTRITION OF FRUIT CROPS (2+1)
Block I (Introduction)
General Concepts and Principles: Importance and history of nutrition in fruit crops, essential plant nutrients, factors affecting plant nutrition; nutrient uptake and their removal from soil.
Block II (Requirements and Applications)
Diagnostics, Estimation and Application: Nutrient requirements, root distribution in fruit crops, soil and foliar application of nutrients in major fruit crops, fertilizer use efficiency. Methods and techniques for evaluating the requirement of macro- and micro-elements, Diagnostic and interpretation techniques including DRIS. Role of different macroand micro-nutrients, their deficiency and toxicity disorders, corrective measures to overcome deficiency and toxicity disorders
Block III (Newer Approaches)
Integrated Nutrient Management (INM): Fertigation in fruit crops, biofertilizers and their use in INM systems.
Visual identification of nutrient deficiency symptoms in fruit crops (2); Identification and application of organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers (2); Soil/ tissue collection and preparation for macro- and micro-nutrient analysis (1); Analysis of soil physical and chemical properties- pH, EC, Organic carbon (1); Determination of N,P,K and other macro- and micronutrients (6); Fertigation in glasshouse and field grown horticultural crops (2); Preparation of micro-nutrient solutions, their spray and soil applications (2).
FSC 509: BIOTECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS (2+1)
Block I (General Background)
Introduction, History and Basic Principles: Introduction and significance, history and basic principles, influence of explant material, physical, chemical factors and growth regulators on growth and development of plant cell, tissue and organ culture.
Block II (Tissue Culture)
In-vitro Culture and Hardening: Callus culture – types, cell division, differentiation, morphogenesis, organogenesis, embryogenesis; Organ culture – meristem, embryo, anther, ovule culture, embryo rescue, somaclonal variation, protoplast culture. Use of bioreactors and in-vitro methods for production of secondary metabolites, suspension culture, nutrition of tissues and cells, regeneration of tissues. Hardening and ex vitro establishment of tissue cultured plants.
Block III (Genetic Manipulation)
In-vitro Breeding, Transgenics and Gene Technologies: Somatic cell hybridisation, construction and identification of somatic hybrids and cybrids, wide hybridization, in-vitro pollination and fertilization, haploids, in-vitro mutation, artificial seeds, cryopreservation, In-vitro selection for biotic and abiotic stress. Genetic engineering- principles and methods, transgenics in fruit crops, use of molecular markers and genomics. Gene silencing, gene tagging, gene editing, achievements of biotechnology in fruit crops.
An exposure to low cost, commercial and homestead tissue culture laboratories (2); Media preparation, Inoculation of explants for clonal propagation, callus induction and culture, regeneration of plantlets from callus (3); Sub-culturing techniques on anther, ovule, embryo culture, somaclonal variation (4); In-vitro mutant selection against abiotic stress (2); Protoplast culture and fusion technique (2); Development of protocols for mass multiplication (2); Project development for establishment of commercial tissue culture laboratory (1).
FSC 510: ORGANIC FRUIT CULTURE (2+1)
Block 1 (General Aspects)
Unit I: Principles and Current Scenario: Organic horticulture, scope, area, production and world trade, definition, principles, methods and SWOT analysis.
Block 2 (Organic Culture)
Farming System and Practices: Organic farming systems including biodynamic farming, natural farming, homa organic farming, rishi krishi, EM technology, cosmic farming; on-farm and off-farm production of organic inputs, role of bio-fertilizers, bio enhancers, legumes, inter cropping, cover crops, green manuring, zero tillage, mulching and their role in organic nutrition management. Organic seeds and planting materials, soil health management in organic production, weed management practices in organic farming, biological management of pests and diseases, trap crops, quality improvement in organic production of fruit crops.
Block 3 (Certification)
Inspection, Control Measures and Certification: Inspection and certification of organic produce, participatory guarantee system (PGS), NPOP, documentation and control, development of internal control system (ICS), Concept of group certification, constitution of grower group as per NPOP, preparation of ICS manual, internal and external inspection, concept of third party verification, certification of small farmer groups (Group Certification), transaction certificate, group certificate, critical control points (CCP) and HACCP, IFOAM guidelines on certification scope and chain of custody, certification trademark – The Logo, accredited certification bodies under NPOP. Constraints in certification, IFOAM and global scenario of organic movement, postharvest management of organic produce. Economics of organic fruit production.
Design of organic orchards/ farms management (2); Conversion plan (1); Nutrient management and microbial assessment of composts and bio-enhancers (2);Preparation and application of composts, bio-enhancers and bio-pesticides (2); Organic nursery raising (1); Application of composts, bio-enhancers, bio-fertilisers and bio-pesticides, green manure, cover, mulching (2); Preparation and use of neem based products (1); Biodynamic preparations and their role in organic agriculture, EM technology and products, biological/ natural management of pests and diseases (2); Soil solarisation (1); Frame work for GAP (1);Documentation for certification (1).
FSC 511: EXPORT ORIENTED FRUIT PRODUCTION (2+1)
Block 1 (Introduction)
Statistics and World Trade: National and international fruit export and import scenario and trends; Statistics and India’s position and potentiality in world trade; export promotion zones in India. Government Policies.
Block 2 (Regulation)
Policies, Norms and Standards: Scope, produce specifications, quality and safety standards for export of fruits, viz., mango, banana, grape, litchi, pomegranate, walnut, apple and other important fruits. Processed and value-added products, post-harvest management for export including packaging and cool chain; HACCP, Codex alimentarius, ISO certification; WTO and its implications, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures.
Block 3 (Quality Assurance)
Infrastructure and Plant Material: Quality fruit production under protected environment; different types of structures – Automated greenhouses, glasshouse, shade net, poly tunnels – Design and development of low-cost greenhouse structures. Seed and planting material; meeting export standards, implications of plant variety protection – patent regimes
Export promotion zones and export scenario of fresh fruits and their products (2); Practical exercises on quality standards of fruits for export purpose (2); Quality standards of planting material and seeds (2); Hi-tech nursery in fruits (2); Practical on ISO specifications and HACCP for export of fruits (3); Sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures during export of horticultural produce (2); Post harvest management chain of horticultural produce for exports (2); Visit to export oriented units/ agencies like APEDA, NHB, etc (1)
FSC 512: CLIMATE CHANGE AND FRUIT CROPS (1+0)
Block 1 (General Aspects)
Introduction, Global Warming and Climatic Variability: Introduction to climate change. Factors directly affecting climate change. Global warming, effect of climate change on spatio-temporal patterns of temperature and rainfall, concentrations of greenhouse gasses in atmosphere. pollution levels such as tropospheric ozone, change in climatic variability and extreme events
Block 2 (Climate Change and Management)
Impact Assessment and Mitigation: Sensors for recording climatic parameters, plants response to the climate changes, premature bloom, marginally overwintering or inadequate winter chilling hours, longer growing seasons and shifts in plant hardiness for fruit crops.
Climate mitigation measures through crop management- use of tolerant rootstocks and varieties, mulching – use of plastic- windbreak- spectral changes- protection from frost and heat waves. Climate management in greenhouse- heating – vents – CO2 injection – screens – artificial light. Impact of climate changes on invasive insect, disease, weed, fruit yield, quality and sustainability. Climate management for control of pests, diseases, quality, elongation of growth and other plant processes- closed production systems.
Block 3 (Case Studies)
Response to Climate Change: Case studies – responses of fruit trees to climatic variability vis-a-vis tolerance and adaptation; role of fruit tree in carbon sequestration.
Practical: No Practical
FSC 513: MINOR FRUIT PRODUCTION (2+1)
Block 1 (Introduction)
Unit I: Occurrence, Adoption and General Account: Importance – occurrence and distribution, climate adaptation in fragile ecosystem and wastelands.
Block 2 (Agro-techniques)
Propagation and Cultural Practices: Traditional cultural practices and recent development in agro-techniques; propagation, botany-floral biology, growth patterns, mode of pollination, fruit set, ripening, fruit quality.
Block 3 (Marketing and Utilization)
Post-Harvest Management: Post harvest management, marketing; minor fruit crops in terms of medicinal and antioxidant values; their uses for edible purpose and in processing industry
Beal, Fig, Passion Fruit, Jamun, Phalsa, Karonda, Wood apple, Loquat, Tamarind, Dragon Fruit, Monkey Jack, Indian Hogplum (amra), Cape Gooseberry, Persimmon, Pistachio, Seabuckthorn, Hazel Nut, Burmese Grape, Paniala (Flacourtiajangomas Lour.), Star Gooseberry, Carambola, Indian Olive (Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume.), Elephant apple (Dillenia indica L.), Minor Syzygium species
Visits to institutes located in the hot and cold arid regions of the country (2); Identification of minor fruits plants/ cultivars (2); Collection of leaves and preparation of herbarium (2); Allelopathic studies (2); Generating know-how on reproductive biology of minor fruits (4); Fruit quality attributes and biochemical analysis (3); Project formulation for establishing commercial orchards in fragile ecosystems (1)
COURSES TO BE OFFERED FOR PH.D. (HORT.) IN FRUIT SCIENCE
|Sl No||Course Number||Course Title||Credit Hour||Offering Semester||Associated Department|
|1||FSC 601*||Innovative Approaches in Fruit Breeding||3+0||1||--|
|2||FSC 602*||Modern Trends in Fruit Production||3+0||1||--|
|3||FSC 603||Recent Developments in Growth Regulation||3+0||2||--|
|4||FSC 604||Advances in Laboratory Techniques||1+2||2||Biochemistry|
|5||FSC 605||Arid and Dryland Fruit Production||2+0||3||-|
|6||FSC 606||Abiotic Stress Management in Fruit Crops||2+1||3||--|
|7||FSC 607||Biodiversity and Conservation of Fruit Crops||2+1||4||--|
|8||FSC 608||Smart Fruit Production||2+0||4||--|
|Total Major Courses||12|
|Total Credit Courses||25|
|FSC 699||Thesis Research||0+75|
COURSES FOR PH.D. (HORT.) IN FRUIT SCIENCE
FSC 601*: INNOVATIVE APPROACHES IN FRUIT BREEDING (3+0)
Block 1 (Introduction)
Current Trends and Status: Modern trends in fruit breeding –with major emphasis on precocity, low tree volume, suitability for mechanization, health benefits, etc.
Block 2 (Genetic Mechanisms)
Inheritance Patterns and Breeding Systems: Genetics of important traits and their inheritance pattern, variations and natural selection, spontaneous mutations, incompatibility systems in fruits.
Block 3 (Breeding for Species Traits)
Plant Architecture, Stress Tolerance and Fruit Quality: Recent advances in crop improvement efforts- wider adaptation, plant architecture, amenability to mechanization, fruit quality attributes, stress tolerance, crop specific traits; use of apomixis, gene introgression and wide hybridization (alien genes).
Block 4 (Fast Track Breeding)
Transgenics, Markers and Genomics: Molecular and transgenic approaches in improvement of selected fruit crops; fast track breeding– marker assisted selection and breeding (MAS and MAB), use of genomics and gene editing tehnologies.
Mango, banana, guava, papaya, Citrus, grapes, pomegranate, litchi, apple, pear, strawberry, kiwifruit, plums, peaches, apricot, cherries, nectarines, nut crops
FSC 602*: MODERN TRENDS IN FRUIT PRODUCTION(3+0)/
Block 1 (Introduction)
Unit I: General Concepts and Current Scenario: National and International scenario, national problems.
Block 2 (Advanced Technologies)
Propagation, Planting Systems and Crop Regulation: Recent advances in propagation – root stocks, planting systems, High density planting, crop modeling, Precision farming, decision support systems – aspects of crop regulation- physical and chemical regulation.
Block 3 (Management Practices)
Overcoming Stress and Integrated Approaches: Effects on physiology and development, influence of stress factors, strategies to overcome stress effects, integrated and modern approaches in water and nutrient management, Physiological disorders, Total quality management (TQM) – Current topics.
Crops: Mango, Banana, Grapes, Citrus, Papaya, Litchi, Guava, Pomegranate, Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Apricot, Cherry, Almond, Walnut, Pecan, Strawberry, Kiwifruit
FSC 603: RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN GROWTH REGULATIONS (3+0)
Block 1 (Introduction)
Unit I: Current Concepts and Principles: Eco-physiological influences on growth and development of fruit crops-flowering, fruit set- Crop load and assimilate partitioning and distribution.
Block 2 (Growth Substances)
Phytohormones and Growth Regulators: Root and canopy regulation, study of plant growth regulators in fruit culture- structure, biosynthesis, metabolic and morphogenetic effects of different plant growth promoters and growth retardants. Absorption, translocation and degradation of phytohormones – internal and external factors influencing hormonal synthesis, biochemical action, growth promotion and inhibition, canopy management for fertigated orchards.
Block 3 (Growth and Development)
Regulation of Developmental Processes: Growth regulation aspects of propagation, embryogenesis, seed and bud dormancy, fruit bud initiation, regulation of flowering, off season production.
Flower drop and thinning, fruit-set and development, fruit drop, parthenocarpy, fruit maturity and ripening and storage, molecular approaches in crop growth regulation- current topics.
FSC 604: ADVANCED LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (1+2)
Block 1 (General Aspects)
Safety Measures and Laboratory Maintenance: Safety aspects and upkeep of laboratory, sampling procedures for quantitative analysis, determination of proximate composition of horticultural produce. Standard solutions, determination of relative water content (RWC), physiological loss in weight (PLW), calibration and standardization of instruments, textural properties of harvested produce, TSS, Specific gravity, pH and acidity.
Block 2 (Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis)
Destructive and Non-destructive Analysis Methods: Refractometry, spectrophotometry, non-destructive determination of colour, ascorbic acid, sugars, and starch in food crops.
Chromatographic and Microscopic Analysis: Basic chromatographic techniques, GC, HPLC, GCMS, Electrophoresis techniques, ultra-filtration. Application of nuclear techniques in harvested produce. Advanced microscopic techniques, ion leakage as an index of membrane permeability, determination of biochemical components in horticultural produce.
Sensory Analysis: Importance of ethylene, quantitative estimation of rate of ethylene evolution, using gas chromatograph (GC). Sensory analysis techniques, control of test rooms, products and panel.
Determination of moisture, relative water content and physiological loss in weight (2), Determination of biochemical components in horticultural produce (3); Calibration and standardization of instruments (1); Textural properties of harvested produce (1); Determination of starch index (SI) (1); Specific gravity for determination of maturity assessment, and pH of produce (1), Detection of adulterations in fresh as well as processed products (2), Non-destructive determination of colour, ascorbic acid, vitamins, carotenoids, sugars and starch (2),Estimation of rate of ethylene evolution using gas chromatograph (GC) (2), Use of advanced microscopes (fluorescent, scanning electron microscope, phase contrast, etc.) (1)
FSC 605: ARID AND DRYLAND FRUIT PRODUCTION (2+0)
Block 1 (Introduction)
General Concepts and Current Scenario: Characteristics features and major constraints of the arid and dryland region, distinguishing features of the fruit species trees for adaptation in adapting to the region, nutritional and pharmaceutical importance, national problems.
Block 2 (Advanced Technologies)
Propagation, Planting Systems and Crop Regulation: Recent advances in propagation – root stocks, planting systems, High density planting, crop modelling, Precision farming, decision support systems – aspects of crop regulation- physical and chemical regulation, effects on physiology and development, influence of stress factors.
Block 3 (Management Practices)
Stress Mitigation and Integrated Approaches: Strategies to overcome stress effects, integrated and modern approaches in water and nutrient management, total quality management (TQM) – Current topics.
Aonla, Annonas, ber, bael, jamun, date palm, cactus pear, khejri, kair, pilu, lasoda, manila, tamarind, monkey jack, mahua, khirni, amra, seabuckthorn, chilgoza, cafel, rhododendron, box myrtle, chironji, phalsa, karonda,woodapple, paniala and other minor fruits of regional importance.
FSC 606: ABIOTIC STRESS MANAGEMENT IN FRUIT CROPS (2+1)
Block 1 (Introduction)
Basic Aspects and Principles: Stress – definition, classification, stresses due to water (high and low), temperature (high and low), radiation, wind, soil conditions (salinity, alkalinity, ion toxicity, fertilizer toxicity, etc.). Pollution – increased level of CO2, industrial wastes, impact of stress in fruit crop production, stress indices, physiological and biochemical factors associated with stress, fruit crops suitable for different stress situations.
Block 2 (Stress Impact)
Assessment, Physiology and Performance: Crop modeling for stress situations, cropping systems, assessing the stress through remote sensing, understanding adaptive features of crops for survival under stress, interaction among different stresses and their impact on crop growth and productivity.
Block 3 (Stress Management)
Mitigation Measures and Conservation Practices: Greenhouse effect and methane emission and its relevance to abiotic stresses, use of anti transpirants and PGRs in stress management, mode of action and practical use, HSP inducers in stress management techniques of soil moisture conservation, mulching, hydrophilic polymers. Rain water harvesting, increasing water use efficiency, skimming technology, contingency planning to mitigate different stress situations, stability and sustainability indices.
Seed treatment/ hardening practices (2);Container seedling production (2);Analysis of soil moisture estimates (FC, ASM, PWP) (1);Analysis of plant stress factors, RWC, chlorophyll flourosence, chlorophyll stability index, ABA content, plant waxes, stomatal diffusive resistance, transpiration, photosynthetic rate, etc. under varied stress situations (5); Biological efficiencies, WUE, solar energy conversion and efficiency (2);Crop growth sustainability indices and economics of stress management (2); Visit to orchards and watershed locations (2)
FSC 607: BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION OF FRUIT CROPS (2+1)
Block 1 (General Aspects)
Issues, Goals and Current Status: Biodiversity and conservation; issues and goals- needs and challenges; present status of gene centres; world’s major centres of fruit crop domestication; current status of germplasm availability/ database of fruit crops in India.
Block 2 (Germplasm Conservation)
Collection, Maintenance and Characterization: Exploration and collection of germplasm; sampling frequencies; size and forms of fruit and nut germplasm collections; active and base collections. Germplasm conservation- in situ and ex situ strategies, on farm conservation; problem of recalcitrancy- cold storage of scions, tissue culture, cryopreservation, pollen and seed storage.
Block 3 (Regulatory Horticulture)
Germplasm Exchange, Quarantine and Intellectual Property Rights: Regulatory horticulture, inventory and exchange of fruit and nut germplasm, plant quarantine, phyto-sanitary certification, detection of genetic constitution of germplasm and maintenance of core collection. IPRs, Breeder’s rights, Farmer’s rights, PPV and FR Act. GIS and documentation of local biodiversity, Geographical indications, GIS application in horticultural mapping and spatial analyses of field data; benefits of GI protection; GI tagged fruit varieties in India.
Documentation of germplasm- maintenance of passport data and other records of accessions (2); Field exploration trips and sampling procedures (2); Exercise on ex situ conservation – cold storage, pollen/ seed storage (2); Cryopreservation (2); Visits to National Gene Bank and other centers of PGR activities (2); Detection of genetic constitution of germplasm (2); Germplasm characterization using a standardised DUS test protocol (2); Special tests with biochemical and molecular markers (2).
FSC 608: SMART FRUIT PRODUCTION (2+0)
Block 1 (Introduction)
Importance and Overview: Introduction and importance; concepts and applications of artificial intelligence systems; case studies in horticulture
Block 2 (Crop Modelling and Forecasting)
GIS, Sensors and Wireless Systems: Application of sensors in fruit production, crop monitoring – crop load and stress incidence forecast modules, remote sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Differential Geo-Positioning System (DGPS) hi-tech nursery production of fruit crops under protected conditions, ultra modern wireless based drip irrigation network.
Block 3 (Nano-Technology)
Concepts and Methods: Nanotechnology for smart nutrient delivery in fruit farming, concepts and methods, practical utility, nano-fertilizers, nano-herbicides; nano-pesticides.
Block 4 (Innovative Approaches)
Mechanization, Automation and Robotics: Production systems amenable to automation and mechanization; automated protected structures (turnkey systems); hydroponics, aeroponics, bioreactors for large scale plant multiplication; Use of drones and robotics in fruit growing – robotic planters, sprayers, shakers, harvesters, stackers, etc. Visit to Hi-tech facilities.
Faculty and Staff members of the DepartmentProf. Prodyut Kumar Paul Professor & Dean & Registrar (Actg.), Faculty of Horticulture E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
More details ...
Dr. Sarad Gurung Professor & In-charge, Regional Research Station (Hill Zone), Kalimpong E-mail: [email protected]/[email protected]
More details ...
Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick Professor & Head E-mail: n[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
More details ...Dr. Mutum Preema Devi Assistant Professor E-mail: [email protected]
More details ...Dr. Aditi Chakrabarty Assistant Professor E-mail: [email protected]
More details ...Dr. Binayak Chakraborty Assistant Professor (Regional Research Station, Terai Zone, Pundibari) E-mail: [email protected]
More details ...
|Mr. Nitish Chandra Saha Phone: +91-7319555043 Designation: Technical Assistant Grade-I||Mr. Ananda Sarkar Phone: +91-9064088820 Designation: Laboratory Attendant (Gr-II)|
a) List of students awarded as M.Sc. (Horticulture) in Pomology &Post-Harvest Technology
|Serial No.||Name of the student||Registration No||Advisory committee||Thesis Title||Year of Award|
|1.||CHANDRIMA PAL||H-2005-24-M||Prof. Swapan Kr Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. C. P. Suresh, Prof. Sankar Kumar Laha, Dr. ParthaPratim Choudhury||Influence of different chemicals on the shelf life and prevention of penicilium rot in Darjeeling Mandarin (Citrus reticulata)||2007|
|2.||RANJIT PAL||H-2006-16-M||Dr. C. P. Suresh (Chairman) Prof. S. K. Ghosh Dr. D. Mukhopadhyaya Dr. J. C. Jana||To study the effect of NAA and Ethrel on the induction of flowering in pineapple (Ananascomosus (L.) Merr)||2008|
|3.||SANGITA MEHTA||H-2006-17-M||Prof. Swapan Kr Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. C. P. Suresh, Dr. A. Choudhury, Dr. P. P. Choudhury||Storage longevity of passion fruit squash||2008|
|4.||SURESH KR. MAHATO||H-2008-14-M||Dr. C. P. Suresh (Chairman) Prof. (Dr.) S. K. Ghosh, Dr. P. K. Paul, Dr. J. C. Jana||Studies on the performance of banana cv. Nendran in the Terai region of WB||2011|
|5.||BIJU PARIYAR||H-2009-01-M||Dr. C. P. Suresh (Chairman) Dr. Prodyut Kr. Paul,Dr. D. Mukhopadhyay,Dr. P. Choudhury.||Effect of nutrient and mulching on yield quality and shelf life of strawberry cv. Chandler||2011|
|6.||KARMA SHERPA||H-2009-04-M||Dr. Prodyut Kr. Paul (Chairman), Dr. C. P. Suresh, Dr. Ranjit Chatterjee, Dr. Ashok Choudhury||Assessment of quality characteristics upon enzymes assisted juice extraction from plum||2011|
|7.||ANANT TAMANG||H-2010-02-M||Dr. C. P. Suresh (Chairman) Prof. S. K. Ghosh, Nilesh Bhowmick, Dr. Bidhan Roy||Morphotaxonomical characterization and evaluation of some mango (Mangiferaindica L.) varieties grown in Terai region of WB||2012|
|8.||SAURABH PRADHAN||H-2010-04-M||Nilesh Bhowmick (Chairman) Prof. S. K. Ghosh, Dr. Bidhan Roy, Dr. Prabhat Kr. Paul||Characterization of flowering and fruiting of Burmese grape (BaccaureasapidaMuell. Arg.)||2012|
|9.||PIYALI DUTTA||H-2012-08-M||Prof. S. K. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. S. Datta, Dr. S. Khalko, Dr. A. Ghosh||Effect of post harvest treatment on storage life of guava (Psidiumguajava L.)||2014|
|10.||NIYAT THAPA||H-2012-07-M||Prof. S. K. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. G. Chakraborty, Dr. S. Khalko Dr. A. Ghosh||Performance of guava (Psidiumguajava L.) & litchi (Litchi chinensisSonn.) cultivars under Terai zone of WB||2014|
|11.||ARKENDU GHOSH||H-2013-02-M||Prof. S. K. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. P. S. Medda Dr. S. Bandyopadhyay||Effect of pruning and nutrient management on growth and yield of lemon cv. Assam lemon (Citrus limonBurm.)||2015|
|12.||KOYEL DEY||H-2013-04-M||Prof. S. K. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. A. N. Dey Dr. B. Roy||Studies on nursery technique and physio- chemical composition of Indian Hog–Plum (Spondiaspinnata Linn.)||2015|
|13.||PRIYAM CHATTOPADHYAY||H-2014-08-M||Prof. S. K. Ghosh (Chairman) NileshBhowmick Dr. S. Datta Dr. S. Khalko||Standardization of different value added products from Jackfruit grown in Terai region of West Bengal and evaluation of its storage stability||2016|
|14.||SUKANYA MISRA||H-2014-13-M||Prof. S. K. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. A. N. Dey, Dr. P. S. Medda||Studies on storage behavior of Indian olive (ElaecarpousfloribundusBlume)||2016|
|15.||ABID HAYAT||H-2015-02-M||Dr. Mutum Preema Devi (Chairman) Dr. Prodyut Kr. Paul, Dr. Surajit Khalko, Dr. Partha Sarathi Medda||Evaluation of quality and stability of lemon based blended nectar||2017|
|16.||ARGHYA MANI||H-2015-04-M||Dr. Prodyut Kr. Paul (Chairman) Dr. MutumPreema Devi, Dr. SomnathMandal, Dr. SurajitKhalko||Studies on sodium substitution in mango pickle||2017|
|17.||BIJAYANKA BAIDYA||H-2016-01-M||Prof. Prodyut Kr. Paul (Chairman) Dr. AditiChakraborty, Dr. MutumPreema Devi, Dr. Srilekha Das||Effect pre-harvest spray on shelf life and quality of strawberry (Fragariaananassa)||2018|
|18.||JANNILA PRAVEENA||H-2016-06-M||Dr. AditiChakraborty (Chairman) Dr. NileshBhowmick Prof. AmarendraNathDey Prof. Arup Sarkar||Role of pollen on fruit characteristics of selected guava (Psidiumguajava L.) genotypes||2018|
|19.||SRI SURYA VENKATADEVI PRASANNA. V||H-2016-10-M||Dr. NileshBhowmick (Chairman) Dr. AditiChakraborty Dr. ManojKantiDebnath Prof. SoumenMaitra||Effect of planting densities and paclobutrazol on flowering and fruiting characteristics of pineapple (Ananascomosus (L.) Merr) cv. Mauritius.||2018|
b) List of students awarded as M.Sc. (Horticulture) in Fruit Science
|Serial No.||Name of the student||Registration No||Advisory committee||Thesis Title||Year of Award|
|20.||NIM TSHERING SHERPA||H-2017-08-M||Dr. AditiChakraborty (Chairman) Dr. NileshBhowmick Prof. AmarendraNathDey Dr. NanditaSahana||Standardization of seed germination and stem cutting of Burmese Grape(BaccaureasapidaMuell.Arg)||2019|
|21.||NOVIN CHAMLING||H-2017-09-M||Dr. NileshBhowmick (Chairman) Dr. A.Chakraborty, Prof. S. Maitra, Dr. H. A.Mondal, Dr. SurajitKhalko||Effect of secondary hardening media on field performances of banana.||2019|
|22.||SANTHOSHKUMAR. G. M||H-2017-14-M||Dr. NileshBhowmick (Chairman) Dr. AditiChakraborty Prof. AmarendraNathDey Dr. Puspendu Dutta||Response of shoot pruning on growth, flowering and fruiting characteristics of guava (Psidiumguajava L.) under sub-Himalayan Terai region of WB||2019|
|23.||DEEP GHOSH||H-2018-006-M||Dr. AditiChakraborty (Chairman) Dr. NileshBhowmick,Dr. AmarendraNathDey,Dr. ParthaSarathiMedda, Dr. MoumitaChakraborty||Study on plant morphology, floral biology and fruiting behavior of ber (Ziziphus spp.)||2021|
|24,||DEEPAK. S. KORE||H-2018-007-M||Dr. AditiChakraborty (Chairman) Dr. NileshBhowmick, Prof. Prodyut Kr. Paul,Dr. AvijitKundu Prof. Arunava Ghosh||Effect of mutagen on seed germination and seedling growth behavior of acid lime (Citrus aurantifoliaSwingle.)||2020|
|25.||SAIDIKSHA SUBBA||H-2018-020-M||Dr. NileshBhowmick (Chairman) Dr. AditiChakraborty Dr. Puspendu Dutta, Prof. ParthaSarathiMedda||Flowering, fruiting characteristics and response of girdling on yield attributes of litchi (Litchi chinensisSonn.)||2020|
|26.||SWADESH GURUNG||H-2019-015-M||Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick (Chairman) Prof. Prodyut Kumar Paul, Prof. Amanendra Nath Dey, Prof. Arunava Ghosh, Dr. Somnath Mandal.||Standardization of kiwifruit (Actinidiadeliciosa) propagation techniques through cuttings||2021|
|27.||VISWANATHA K.E.||H-2019-017-M||Dr. NileshBhowmick (Chairman) Dr. AditiChakraborty,Prof. DibyenduMukhopadhyay,Prof. Arunava Ghosh, Dr. SomnathMandal||Effect of foliar spray of Zinc-nano-particle on guava (Psidiumguajava L.)||2021|
|28.||ZIGME WANGCHUK SHERPA||H-2019-018-M||Dr. Aditi Chakraborty (Chairman) Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick, Prof. Amanendra Nath Dey, Prof. Arup Sarkar, Dr. Surajit Khalko.||Comparative study on morphology and biotic stress in F₁ and their parent of guava (Psidiumguajava L.)||2021|
|29.||KAVITHA SINGH||H-2020-010-M||Prof. Nilesh Bhowmick (Chairman) Dr. Aditi Chakraborty, Dr. Binayak Chakraborty, Dr. Mutum Preema Devi||Standardization of propagation techniques of Malay apple and water apple through cuttings||2022|
|30.||RAJESH DAS||H-2020-011-M||Dr. AditiChakraborty (Chairman) Prof. Nilesh Bhowmick, Dr. Mutum Preema Devi,Dr. Nandita Sahana.||Effect of fruit bunch bagging in litchi (Litchi chinensisSonn).||2022|
|31.||SUDARSHANA BHUJEL||H-2020-012-M||Prof. NileshBhowmick (Chairman) Dr. AditiChakraborty, Dr. BinayakChakraborty, Dr. MutumPreema Devi.||Effect of bio-stimulants on performance of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassaDuch.) cv. Festival under organic cultivation||2022|
c) List of students awarded as Sc. (Horticulture) in Post-Harvest Technology
|Serial No.||Name of the student||Registration No||Advisory committee||Thesis Title||Year of Award|
|32.||JINNAMU ARESH||H-2017-02-M||Prof. Prodyut Kr. Paul (Chairman) Dr. Mutum Preema Devi, Dr. Ashok Chaudhury, Dr. Surajit Khalko||Efficacy of microbial isolates in removing ethylene for delayed ripening||2019|
|33.||BINITA BAIDYA||H-2017-04-M||Dr. MutumPreema Devi (Chairman) Prof. Prodyut Kr. Paul Dr. Surajit Khalko Dr. Arpita Mandal Khan||Studies on pre-drying treatment and storage condition on quality of dried spray chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)||2019|
|34.||RAGHUMANDALA SUMASREE||H-2018-017-M||Prof. Prodyut Kr. Paul (Chairman) Dr. Mutum Preema Devi,Dr. Nilesh Bhowmick, Dr. Ranjit Chatterjee, Dr. Sankalpa Ojha||Effect of polyamine on post- harvest quality of banana||2020|
|35||DAMONHI PHYLLEI||H-2019-005-M||Prof. Prodyut Kumar Paul (Chairman), Dr. MutumPreema Devi,Dr. NileshBhowmick,Dr. NanditaSahana.||Pulsed temperature treatment for uniform ripening and shelf life improvement of banana||2021|
|36.||SWETA MALAKAR||H-2019-016-M||Dr. Mutum Preema Devi (Chairman), Prof. Prodyut Kumar Paul, Prof. Indrajit Sarkar, Dr. Subhamoy Sikder||Standardization and quality evaluation of blended pummelo squash (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck)||2021|
|37.||AAMIR HUMAYUN||H-2020-017-M||Prof. (Dr.) Prodyut Kumar Paul (Chairman), Dr. M,Preema Devi,Dr. Shrilekha Das, Dr. NanditaSahana, Dr. Manoj K. Debnath.||Profiling of polyphenol oxidase Inactivation in potato through blanching||2022|
|38.||SANASAM ANGOUSANA||H-2020-019-M||Dr. MutumPreema Devi (Chairman) Prof. Prodyut Kumar Paul,Dr. SabitaMonda,Dr. ManojKantiDebnath.||Study on food safety knowledge, attitude and practices of skilled workers of food industries in Manipur||2022|
a) List of students awarded as Ph.D. in Pomology & Post-Harvest Technology
|Serial No.||Name||Registration No||Advisory committee||Thesis Title||Year of Award|
|1.||DHANANJAY KUMAR SINGH||-----||Prof. (Dr.) S. K. Ghosh (Chairman), Dr. B. C. Banik,Dr. T. K. Maity, Prof. M. M. Haldar||Studies on the varietal selection and determination of nutritional requirement of papaya (Carica papaya L.) under Terai Region of West Bengal||2003|
|2.||PRODYUT KUMAR PAUL (In-service)||H-2004-13-D||Prof. (Dr.) S. K. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. C. P. Suresh,Dr. ParthaPratim Choudhury,Dr. J. C. Jana.||Studies on osmotic dehydration of pineapple cubes||2008|
|3.||PRAHLAD DEB||H-2005-16-D||Dr. C. P. Suresh (Chairman) Prof. (Dr.) S. K. Ghosh, Dr. D. Mukhopadhyay.||Effect of different micro nutrients and growth regulators on the performance and post harvest life of banana cv. Malbhog, (Musa, AAB)||2010|
|4.||KARMA DIKI BHUTIA||H-2009-12-D||Prof. (Dr.) S. K. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. C. P. Suresh,Dr. P. K. Paul, Dr. S.Chakravarty.Dr. K. Pradhan||Studies on physio-chemical characteristics and utilization aspects of some indigenous minor fruits of Sikkim||2012|
|5.||PRATAP SUBBA||H-2008-3-D||Prof. S. K. Ghosh (Chairman), Dr. C. P. Suresh,Dr. D. Mukhopadhyay,Dr. Bidhan Roy, Dr. T. K. Mondal||Studies on physiological and bio-chemical changes under zinc stress in mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) seedlings.||2012|
|6.||SEVONO SELETSU||H-2009-16-D||Dr. Prodyut Kr. Paul (Chairman) Prof. (Dr.) S. K. Ghosh,Dr. C. P. Suresh,Dr. J. C. Jana||Drying behavior and quality evaluation of osmotically pretreated mandarin orange segments||2013|
|7.||SARAD GURUNG (In-service)||H-2009-15-D||Dr. C. P. Suresh (Chairman) Dr. D. Mukhopadhyay,Dr. P. K. Paul,Dr. S. Chakraborty||Efficacy of inorganic, organic amendmends, growth regulators and micro nutrients on the performance of Darjeeling mandarin, Citrus reticulata (Blanco)||2014|
|8.||RAVI KUMAR KUNA||H-2011-03-D||Dr. Swapan Kr. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. SumitChakravarty,Dr. HimadriBhattacharjee,Dr. RupakSarkar,Dr. SurojitKhalko||Effect of irrigation, leaf and sucker management on yield and quality of banana (Musa spp., AAA) VAR. Grand Naine in Terai zone of West Bengal||2014|
|9.||M. R. BHANU SREE||H-2012-06-D||Dr. Swapan Kr. Ghosh (Chairman) Dr. SumitChakravarty, Dr. D. Mukhopadhyay, Dr. G. K. Pandit Dr. P. S. Medda||Pre and Post harvest management of shelf life and quality of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) var. Grand Naine||2015|
|10.||SUKANYA MISRA||H-2016-05-D||Dr. SaradGurung (Chairman) Prof. Prodyut Kr. Paul,Dr. AditiChakraborty,Prof. ParthaSarathiMedda,Dr. ManojKantiDebnath||Effect of plant population and mulching on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivation under Terai region of West Bengal||2021|
b) List of students awarded as Ph.D. in Fruit Science
|Serial No.||Name||Registration No||Advisory committee||Thesis Title||Award|
|11.||KONDLE RAVI||H-2017-4-D||Dr. SaradGurung (Chairman), Dr. NileshBhowmick, Prof. Prodyut Kumar Paul, Prof. DibyenduMukhopadhyay||Effect of pruning and nutrient management of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia SWINGLE) cv. Balaji under sub-himalayanTerai region of WB||2021|
|12.||POLU PARAMESHWAR||H-2018-012-D||Dr. NileshBhowmick (Chairman) Prof. Prodyut Kr. Paul,Prof. Partha Sarathi Medda, Dr. Shyamal Kr. Sahoo, Dr. Surajit Khalko.||Impact of rejuvenation, shoot pruning on vegetative, flowering, fruit characteristics and pest incidence of mango||2021|
c) List of students awarded as Ph.D. in Post-Harvest Technology
|Serial No.||Name||Registration No||Advisory committee||Thesis Title||Year of Award|
|13.||MD SHAMSHER AHMAD||H-2018-011-D||Dr. MutumPreema Devi (Chairman) Prof. Prodyut Kr. Paul,Dr. NileshBhowmick,Dr. NanditaSahana, Dr. ManojKantiDebnath.||Process optimization for preparation and evaluation of debittered juice from pummel (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck)||2021|